all other European peoples in the size of their bells.
The great bell of Moscow, cast by the orders of the Empress Anne in 1734, was by far the largest made by them, being 21 feet in hight, and weighing 193 tons.
It remained suspended only until 1737, when it fell in consequence of a fire, and remained partially buried in the earth until 1837, when it was raised, and now forms the dome of a chapel formed by excavating the earth underneath it. It has been denied that this bell ever was suspenasting, of some of the largest bells in the world are stated to be as follows: —
Cast in 155336,000
Cast in 1654288,000
Fell in 1703.
Recast in 1733432,00021.23
Broken in 1737.
Moscow (St. Ivan's)127,830
Westminster ( Big Ben, 1858）30,324
London (Houses of Parliament)30,000
Otto Guericke, of Magdeburg, discovered that there was a repulsive as well as an attractive force in electricity, observing that a globe of sulphur, after attracting a feather to it, repelled it until the feather had again been placed in contact with some other substance.
Newton, in 1675, observed signs of electrical excitement in a rubbed plate of glass.
Hawkesbee, who wrote in 1709, also observed similar phenomena; and Dulay in the Memoirs of the French Academy, between 1733 and 1737, generalized so far as to lay down the principle that electric bodies attract all those which are not so, and repel them as soon as they have become electric by the vicinity or contact of the electric body.
Dufay also discovered that a body electrified by contact with a resinous substance repelled another electrified in a similar way, and attracted one which had been electrified by contact with glass.
He thence concluded that the electricity derived from those two sources was of differe
a to the water, and propels the vessel.
The duck's-foot propeller was tried by a Swiss clergyman, named Genevois, about 1737.
It was of a contracting and expanding character, and was intended to resemble a duck's foot in its mode of operation.
E applied in electric science, were used by Franklin in 1747; the terms vitreous and resinous electricity, by Dufay, in 1734-37.
2. (Photography.) A photographic print in which the lights and shades have their natural relation, as distinguished patented the hydraulic propeller, forcing water through the stern of the ship at a convenient distance under water.
In 1737, Jonathan Hulls patented a steamboat propelled by a paddle-wheel astern.
In 1738, David Ramsey obtained a patent in Engs the vessel to advance.
The hydraulic propeller so often projected — by Allen, in 1729; Hulls, 1737; Ramsay, 1738; Rumsey, 1782; Franklin and Evans, 1786 — has been lately revived, the English government vessel the Water-W
e Romans passed over to Sicily they were transported thither in ships moved by wheels, set in motion by oxen.
Dr. John Allen, of England, in 1730, suggested the use of the backwardly discharging pump, now known as the hydraulic propeller.
In 1737, Jonathan Hulls published a pamphlet in England describing a method of propelling a vessel by steam, for which he had secured a patent.
He proposed placing the wheel at the stern, that being the proper place for it, because water-fowl pushed theid, while the other was being drawn back to its starting-place by a weight disconnected with the revolving parts.
The alternate reciprocating motion was used upon a number of carriages and boats before the crank was generally adopted.
Hulls, in 1737, used an arrangement of cords and pulleys, involving the use of a ratchet.
This was repeated by Symington in 1789.
The Newcomen engine, which was doing the heavy work from 1705 to 1770, or thereabouts, had no rotary motions, but employed a wal