ar metallic plate upon which a covering of fur is laid and felted to make a conical napping, or pull-over for a hatbody.
The same as basin.
（Mining-engineering.) The outcrop or emergence of a stratum or seam at the surface.
（Music.) A wind instrument resembling the clarinet in tone and manipulation, but larger.
It is seldom employed in the orchestra, except in the execution of a few special pieces.
It is believed to have been invented at Papan, about 1770, and afterwards perfected by Lotz, of Presburg.
（Music.) A small bass-viol.
（Music.) A wind instrument of deeper tone than the bassoon.
（Music.) a. A musical wind instrument made of wood, and capable of being divided near the middle, so that the two parts may be of a more convenient length for carriage.
The bassoon has a reed and curved mouth-piece, and is played by means of keys and finger-holes like the clarinet, to which
within a sharp and biting gravy.
Blister steel which has been broken up, fused in a crucible, cast into ingots, and rolled.
The blocks of steel are melted in crucibles of refractory clay, and the molten metal is poured into ingot-molds of cast-iron.
These are opened, to let out the red-hot ingot, which is then passed to the rolls.
See crucible; ingot-mold.
The process of making cast-steel was invented by Benjamin Huntsman, of Attercliff, near Sheffield, England, in 1770.
The furnace has a strong wind-draft, and is lined with a very refractory composition.
Each furnace is adapted to contain two crucibles, each of which is about 2 feet high, and holds a charge of 30 pounds of blister-steel.
The crucibles stand on short cylinders of clay, and have a lid of the same material, which is luted to the top of the crucible, a little glass being sprinkled on the joint for that purpose.
The fuel is coke, and the time
The cottonizing is performed by steeping the fiber in a bath of dilute bicarbonate of soda, and subsequently in an acidulated liquid.
The action of the acid and alkali within the flax fiber generates carbonic-acid gas, and has the effect of bursting apart the fibers, which assume a cottony appearance.
It is then bleached and spun, either mixed or otherwise.
In the first volume of the Transactions of the Society of Arts is a paper detailing the experience of Lady Moira, about 1770, in attempting to introduce flax cotton.
She states that tow and refuse flax of all kinds, boiled with an alkaline solution, and afterwards soured, is converted into a sort of cotton which takes dye better than flax.
Her comments are really noteworthy, and illustrate the oft-told tale of the difficulties which inventors and discoverers have to struggle against in the preconceived opinions of others.
Flax is sometimes cut before hackling in order to enable its
ow-lace making taught at Gt. Marlow, England1626.
Strutt's machine for making open work stockings1758.
Crane's Vandyke machine1758.
Else and Harvey's pin machine1770.
Frost's point-net machine1777.
Dawson's point-net machine1791.
Heathcoat's bobbin-net machine1801.
Hill's plain ground net machine1816.
Limerick lace made18
This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770.
The name is yet a famous brand.
A small microscope for counting the threads in linen fabrics.
Its base has a square openngle driving-wheel roughened on its periphery.
Hornblower's steamcarriage had the same date, 1769.
Symington showed a model of a steam-carriage in Edinburgh in 1770.
It was a long-coupled, fourwheeled carriage, the boiler and engine behind, a coach-body on the usual springs, and in front the guard, who governed the fore-wheel
ching up a six-mule team with six feet distance between the pairs was discarded, and their traces and fifth chains were shortened in, so that they could almost browse upon the tails of the span in advance, — as they did in fact.
The old stiff tongue fourteen feet long.
and the spans hitched up two or three paces apart, remind one of the practice not yet quite exploded in England, of hitching three horses, tandem fashion, to a plow, which was universal till Dawson of Frogden, Scotland, about 1770, showed how to place them abreast, for which the British farmers owe him a debt of gratitude, and after trying it fifty years to make sure it was all right, are prepared to pay on demand.
At the latter end of the eighteenth century, the level lands of Herefordshire and Radnorshire, Great Britain, were turned by plows which were rigged with wheels to obviate the necessity of a plowman.
As usual at that time, the horses were hitched tandem, one ahead of the other, to the extent of three or
. top being removed to show the interior.
Steam-boilers, before the invention of Smeaton (1740-1770), were globular, or segments of spheres, and were heated from the exterior exclusively. Smeaton iepeated by Symington in 1789.
The Newcomen engine, which was doing the heavy work from 1705 to 1770, or thereabouts, had no rotary motions, but employed a walking-beam, with arcs upon the ends, fro, 110 inches diameter, 12 feet stroke.
The Baxter steam-engine, described and pictured on page 1770, has the following sizes and prices:—
Horse-power.Revolutions to the minute.Price.
he Cornish, pages 626 and 1828; the Haarlem Mere engines, pages 1830, 1831; Portable, pages 1769, 1770; Worthington Duplex, Plate XV.
opposite page 763; etc.
See under the following heads:—
Stee other instances; the latter being much like James Watt's device.
(Riz, 1770.) (Walker, 1842.
Eliphalet Nott's stove, Schenectady, New York, in use before 1830, is shown
first European morocco manufactory was established at St. Hippolyte, in Alsace; the art was not fairly developed in France before 1797.
This manufacture was subsequently introduced into England and Germany.
In 1761, McBride of Dublin, and, in 1770, Johnson, introduced the use of dilute sulphuric acid for swelling the hides.
Sumac was used in the first half of the eighteenth century, divi-divi, from Caraccas in 1768.
Catechu at a much later period.
Steam-heating vats seem to have origin2.
In 1688 an immense floating bomb was prepared by the French against the port of Algiers, but was not used.
In 1693-95 similar contrivances were used by the English in besieging St. Malo, Dieppe, and Dunkirk, without serious damage.
In 1770 the Russians burned the Turkish fleet in the port of Tchesme, and destroyed the fortifications by the shock of the explosion.
In 1804 the loaded catamarans of Fulton were used by the English against the French fleet off Boulogne.
But little da