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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 6: military Polity—The means of national defence best suited to the character and condition of a country, with a brief account of those adopted by the several European powers. (search)
pulation of near thirty-five millions, supports a permanent establishment of about 350,000 men, at an expense of seventy or eighty millions of dollars, out of a total budget of $280,000,000. France has long supported a permanent military force of from one-hundredth to one hundred-and-tenth of her population, at an expense of from one-fourth to one-fifth of her whole budget. The following table, copied from the Spectateur Militaire, shows the state of the army at six different periods between 1788 and 1842. It omits, of course, the extraordinary levies of the wars of the Revolution and of the Empire. Table. Dates. Population. Budget.Army.Remarks. Of State.Of the Army.Peace Estab.War Estab.   Livres.Livres.Men.Men.  178824,000,000500,000,000100,000,000180,000360,000    Francs.Francs.    181428,000,000800,000,000180,000,000255,000340,000Ordinance of 1814. 182331,000,000900,000,000200,000,000280,000390,000Minister of War. 183032,000,0001,000,000,000220,000,000312,000500,0
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 9: army organization—Staff and Administrative Corps.—Their history, duties, numbers, and organization (search)
ot,)2,500men. 5companies of sappers, 2 of pontoniers, One bridge-equipage is required for each corps d'armee. and 1 of artificers,1,500men.     45,500men. If we add to these the staff, and the several officers and employes of the administrative departments, we have an army of nearly fifty thousand men. This, it will be remembered, is the organization of an army in the field; in the entire military organization of a, state, the number of staff officers will be still higher. In 1788, France, with a military organization for about three hundred and twenty thousand men, had eighteen marshals, two hundred and twenty-five lieutenant-generals, five hundred and thirty-eight marechaux-de-camp, and four hundred and eighty-three brigadiers. A similar organization of the general staff was maintained by Napoleon. At present the general staff of the French army consists of nine marshals, (twelve in time of war;) eighty lieutenant-generals in active service, fifty-two in reserve, a