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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 265 265 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 52 52 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 25 25 Browse Search
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF MEDFORD, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, IN 1630, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1855. (ed. Charles Brooks) 13 13 Browse Search
Wendell Phillips, Theodore C. Pease, Speeches, Lectures and Letters of Wendell Phillips: Volume 1 13 13 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 12 12 Browse Search
Rebellion Record: a Diary of American Events: Documents and Narratives, Volume 1. (ed. Frank Moore) 11 11 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 10 10 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 2 9 9 Browse Search
Edward H. Savage, author of Police Recollections; Or Boston by Daylight and Gas-Light ., Boston events: a brief mention and the date of more than 5,000 events that transpired in Boston from 1630 to 1880, covering a period of 250 years, together with other occurrences of interest, arranged in alphabetical order 9 9 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1789 AD or search for 1789 AD in all documents.

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made fast to the pins at one end, are tuned by turning the pegs at the other. The box is open on the sides presented towards the room and to the exterior air, and the strings are sounded by the passage of the air through the box. Catgut is usually employed for the strings. It is supposed to have been invented by John J. Schnell, musical-instrument maker to the Countess d'artois. It was suggested by the vibration of the strings of a harp placed in a breezy situation. Exposed for sale in 1789 under the name of Anemo Chorde. Its use was revived by Kircher. One of the Talmuds says that the harp of David sounded when the north-wind blew on it, and it has been suggested that he had an Aeolian, as we understand it. The sounding of his harp by a gust of wind would be nothing extraordinary if it stood near his north window, which was probably open for air and chosen for its coolness and shade in the climate of Judaea. David wrote a good deal in praise of shade and cool drink.
means of a revolving pattern. The variations of detail will be mentioned under lathe (which see). Carv′ing—ta′ble. A table heated with hot water, in which are depressions forming pans to hold joints of meat. Car—wheel. One adapted for the uses of cars, or the trucks of railway cars. They were originally like those in ordinary use, and were guided by flanges on the rails, as in the case of the Sheffield Colliery Railroad, 1767. At this time the rails were of cast-iron. In 1789, car-wheels were made with flanges, to run on the edge-rail, which was first made of castiron and used at Lough borough, England. In Stephenson and Losh's patent, 1816, car-wheels were made with wrought-iron spokes, the hub and rim being cast on to them. A wrought-iron tire was shrunk on to the rim, and secured in its seat by a dovetailed depression. In Fig. 1170 are shown a few examples of the numerous inventions of this class. a a′ represent the famous Washburn wheel so familia
p for common uses. It is clinker-built, from 12 to 14 feet long, and has a beam one third of its length. Di-op′ter. An ancient altitude, angle, and leveling instrument; said to have been invented by Hipparchus. Dioptra. Di-op′tric light. The dioptric system of lighting, used in lighthouses, as distinguished from the catoptric, which is by reflectors. Refraction instead of reflection. Lenses were used in the South Foreland light in 1752, and in the Portland light, England, in 1789. The system fell into disfavor, owing to certain mechanical difficulties in the construction and arrangement of the lenses. It was revived and improved by Fresnel about 1810, and has been generally adopted throughout France and Holland, and partially in England. It is considered superior to the catoptric, and was readopted in England in 1834, being placed in the Lundy Island Lighthouse, Devonshire, England. The Fresnel dioptric lamp consists of a mechanical, four-wicked oil-lamp, plac
an arched tread and has lateral flanged feet; the footrail, which has a tread like the edg-rail, but, unlike it, has a broad base formed by foot flanges. The first public railway laid with edge rails was made by Jessop of Loughborough, England, 1789. They were of cast-iron in 3 or 4 feet lengths, and had vertical holes near each end by which they were wooden-pinned to the sleepers. They were fishbellied, and subsequently laid on cast-iron chairs. Wyatt's patent in 1800 was an oval east-it manufacture. Ugo di Carpi introduced the method of printing in colors or tints by separate successive blocks. Engraving on wood assumed the character of an art about 1440; the first impression, 1423. Improved by Durer, 1471 – 1528; by Bewick, 1789. Engraving on stone. Work done upon a lithographic stone by etching-point, diamond, or rulingmachine : the stylus of the latter is a diamond. There are two modes, the first of which is the more usual : 1. The stone is covered with a gum and
ttening together a number of piles of folded cloth while they are vulcanized and blended together by a steam heat of say 280° F. Flat-rail. A railroad rail consisting of a simple flat bar, spiked to a longitudinal sleeper. Tramways of wood were laid down by Beaumont at Newcastle, in 1602. They were protected by flat straps of iron in 1738, at Whitehaven. Flat cast-iron plates were laid at Coalbrookdale in 1767. The angular cast-iron rail was used in 1776. Edge rails of cast-iron in 1789. Rolled rails in 1820. See rail. Flat-rope. A rope made by plaiting yarns together instead of twisting. Gasket; sennit. Some flat ropes, for mining-shafts, are made by sewing together a number of ropes, making a wide, flat band. Flat-rope Pul′ley. A pulley having a true cylindrical surface and two rising flanges, to keep the band from running off. See pulley. Flat′ten-ing-fur′nace. A furnace into which cylinder glass split longitudinally is placed to flatten out by h
ded. Two buoys like that described will displace 14 2/3 cubic feet of water, and if added to a boat 28 feet long, and capable of containing 24 men, would leave a buoyancy of 718 pounds for their support. Hydraulic press. Luken's life-boat, used in England about 1785, had projecting gunwales and double sides under them, serving as air-chambers, and air-tight chambers under the thwarts or rowers' seats. This arrangement increased the buoyancy and stability of the boat very much. In 1789, Mr. Greathead of South Shields invented his boat, which proved so successful that it is said that previous to 1804 nearly 300 lives had been saved through its instrumentality near the mouth of the Tynemouth Haven. This boat was about 30 feet in length by 10 in breadth, and 3 1/4 feet deep, having a great sheer from the waist to the ends, which were both sharp and rose with a high curve. The gunwale projected several inches, and the sides were cased and lined with cork, secured by sheet-c
ntion of the panorama is due to Barker, a portrait-painter of Edinburgh, who obtained a patent for his invention in 1787. His panorama of Edinburgh was painted in 1789. In 1792 he exhibited his panorama of London. Fulton introduced the art into France, 1799. In 1821, during the absence for repairs of the cross of St. Paul's, Bn his boat by means of reciprocating paddles. In 1788, Symington had a steamboat on the lake of Dalswinton, propelled by an engine and side paddle-wheels. In 1789, Symington had a boat on the Forth and Clyde Canal, propelled by an engine, and a pair of paddle-wheels placed amidships, respectively fore and aft the engine, and working in a trough extending from stem to stern of the boat, over the keel. In 1789, Oliver Evans, of Philadelphia, had a stern-wheel steamboat which navigated the Schuylkill. In 1795, Lord Stanhope invented the duck-feet paddles, and ran a boat three miles an hour. In 1796, Fitch had a steamboat on Collect Pond, New Yo
t the Duke of Norfolk's colliery, near Sheffield. (Carr's patent, b.) They were spiked down. The flange was put on the rail before it was put on the wheel. In 1789 Loughborough's cast-iron edge-rail, with flanges on the wagon wheels. In 1793 stone bearers were substituted for wooden sleepers at Little Eaton, in Derbyshire.eels. Wyatt's cast edge-rail of oval section (c) was then used in connection with grooved wheels at Penrhyn slate quarries, in 1800. Jessop used this rail in 1789, and added the chair (d), a block of iron slotted to receive the ends of adjacent rails. The wheel had a tread of 2 1/3 inches, and a flange to keep it on the raid or keyed to the chairs, many devices of each kind having been introduced in this country and in Europe. Mr. Jessop of England first invented the rail-chair in 1789, and used it at Loughborough, in Leicestershire. The rail used by Mr. Jessop was a cast-iron rail, laid edgeways. The chair was cast-iron, and was slotted to rec
not been accomplished without serious riots. Arkwright's water-frame. In 1789, Samuel Slater, who had been employed by Arkwright, built the first machinery ons boat was furnished with side paddle-wheels, and was laid up in the winter. In 1789 a boat 60 feet long was propelled on the Forth and Clyde Canal at the rate of 7 , Scotland (from his plan in 1787). Symington's steam-vessel, constructed in 1789, had a central space running lengthwise between the two boats, which were placed wash and injure the canal banks. Oliver Evans' dredging-machine was built in 1789. by order of the Board of Health of Philadelphia. It was a flat scow, with a sof Watt, invented a steamcarriage, which he tested on a road in Cornwall; and in 1789, Thomas Allen, of London, proposed a plan for constructing steam-carriages. T and pulleys, involving the use of a ratchet. This was repeated by Symington in 1789. The Newcomen engine, which was doing the heavy work from 1705 to 1770, or th
l length of 100-136 feet. The two innermost, or the first and second, were discovered in 1788 and 1789 by Herschel, with his colossal reflector. The second satellite offers the remarkable phenomenon instead of the spirits of wine. This thermometer was in use in France until the revolution of 1789, but is now generally superseded by the Centigrade. Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, in 1742 divf through the concaves, and the straw is delivered at k. The circular rakes g and h were added in 1789 by Chillingham. In 1800, the fanning-mill was added The American improvement upon this consis was in 1767. Carr was the first to make the iron rail. Jessop made edgerails of cast-iron in 1789. Birkenshaw introduced the rolled rail in 1820. Tram-plates. Tram′pot. (Milling.) The. Gemmell's patent, about the same time, had exterior side-wheels. Symington's steamboats. 1789-1802, were twin-boats, in which the single paddle-wheel was revolved in the central space. Sno
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