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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 165 165 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 41 41 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 27 27 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 22 22 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 14 14 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 12 12 Browse Search
The Daily Dispatch: March 13, 1862., [Electronic resource] 10 10 Browse Search
Wendell Phillips, Theodore C. Pease, Speeches, Lectures and Letters of Wendell Phillips: Volume 1 9 9 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 8 8 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 7 7 Browse Search
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t, in connection with the mode of proceeding, in general, as to things salable and legal-tenders. The Bank of England commenced business at Grono's Hall, Poultry, London, in 1695. No notes were issued under £ 20. Notes of £ 5 were issued in 1793. Bank-note En-grav′ing. The chief object in the manufacture of bank-notes is to render forgery impossible, or at least easy of detection. This is sought to be effected by peculiarity of paper, design, and printing; or by a combination of thter. See bond. See Mason's and bricklayer's tools, etc. Brick-ma-chine′. Bricks have been made by machinery for many years. Some of the early United States patents, of which the record was unfortunately burned in 1836, are dated 1792, 1793, 1800, 1802, 1806, 1807, and a tolerably constant stream has followed them. About 122 patents were granted in the United States previous to June, 1836, for brick and tile machines, and more than 500 patents have since that time been granted for b<
s of Capernaum and Bethsaida would thus experience a part of the fate of Sodom, submergence in salt water, while the Dead Sea would be somewhat freshened. Aqueducts with cast-iron beds, supported by arches and piers, were introduced by Telford, 1793– 1829, in the construction of several canals; the Shrewsbury, and the Ellesmere and Chester, for instance. The aqueduct over the Ceirog is 710 feet in length, and the water surface 70 feet above the level of the river; ten arches have each 40 f The wooden-clock manufacture was commenced in Waterbury, Connecticut, by James Harrison, in 1790, on whose books the first is charged January 1, 1791, at £ 3 12s. 8d. In East Windsor the brassclock manufacture was carried on by Daniel Burnap. In 1793, Eli Terry, who had been instructed in the business by Burnap, made brass and wooden clocks, with long pendulums; price for a wooden clock and case, from $18 to $48, the higher priced ones having a brass dial and dial for seconds, and the moon's a
cask, and, getting drunk, playfully called it tapping the admiral. The poor man was nearly dry by the time he reached home. The Scythians, Assyrians, and Persians used wax. The body of Agesilaus was covered with wax, but the practice soon became general of wrapping in waxed cloths. We read of these cerements in the preparation for burial of Philip of Burgundy, 1404; Edward I. of England, 1307; and George II. The cerecloth and aromatics for the latter cost pound152. John Hunter (died 1793) embalmed several bodies by injection into the arteries and veins. The bodies are preserved in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, London. The Khasias, a people of the Himalayas, preserve the bodies of their dead in honey till the cessation of the periodical rains permits their being burned. The quantity of rain which falls in that region is remarkable. See rain-gage. Embalming was practiced by the Guanches, or aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, and by the ancient Peru
ch eventually superseded that of Newsham was made, rather than invented, by Simpkin, and patented in 1792. The main improvement was in compactness and adaptation to traveling with speed to the spot where its services were demanded. The valves were contained in separate chambers, instead of being placed in the cylinders and air-chamber. By this means they were easily reached, without the disconnection of the main portions of the pump. Another form of fire-engine was invented by Bramah, 1793, improved by Rowntree and eventually by Barton. The engine of the latter (A, Fig. 1989) was on the vibrating principle. To the levers h h was attached a radial piston b, which oscillated in the cylindrical chamber. As the piston moved in one direction, a valve beneath this piston opened to allow water to pass from the cistern e, and the water in front of the piston was forced through the valve-way above it into the airchamber and passed out at the eduction-pipe to the hose. The difficulty
blocks ten inches in diameter, and a roller seven inches in diameter, turned by iron levers. In the illustration, it is shown in its application to raising surface stone for removal out of the way of the plow. 2. A pump operated by windmill. 3. A coal-hoisting machine. See whin. 4. A snare for birds or animals. 5. A spirit distilled from grain and flavored with juniper berries. 6. A machine for separating cotton-fiber from the seeds. Eli Whitney's cotton-gin, invented in 1793, revolutionized the culture and manufacture of the fiber by providing a mode of putting it into merchantable order at a reasonable price. When done by hand, a man can clean but one pound per day. The roller-gin of India and China cleans from 40 to 65 pounds in a day. It has two rollers, which catch the fiber between them and carry it away, while the seed is detained by a comb. The combing instrument used in the Spanish colonies for removing the seed from the cotton-fiber is called almar
made by the lathe, and Condamine shows how a lathe may be made to turn all sorts of irregular figures by means of tracers moved over the surface of models and sculptures, medals, etc. Plumier's work enters extensively into the art of turning. Among other machines, he describes the slide-rest in combination with a planing-machine. This he calls an English invention. In addition to the citation of these authors, we may refer to a number of elaborate machines made by Sir Samuel Bentham, 1793, and Joseph Bramah, 1802. The machine invented by Brunel for making the groove around ship's blocks for the insertion of the ropes by which they are attached to the rigging has a revolving disk of brass with two cutters. It trav- erses around one side of the block, receiving its direction from a shaper placed parallel thereto, making the groove deeper at the ends than at the central part, where the sheave-pin is inserted. The parent of all recent machines of this kind is, however, the
he selvage or edge-plate. Mor′tise-lock Chis′el. A joiner's chisel for making the holes in door-stiles to hide the locks. It has a peculiar shape, in order to pull out the wood. Mortise-wheel. Mortise-wheel. A wheel having holes to receive wooden teeth, either on the edge or face, as the case may be. Such a tooth is specifically known as a cog. Mor′tis-ing-ma-chine′. The self-acting mortising-machine was invented by General Bentham, and described in his specification of 1793. He made them for the British Admiralty previous to 1800. His description includes the operation by means of a hole previously bored and then elongated by a vertically reciprocating chisel; and also the making of a mortise by a rotary cutter during the traveling of the work. One form included a pivoted table. He also invented double or forked mortisechisels. Hand mortising-machine. Fig. 3234 is a hand mortising-machine, having a vertically sliding bar carrying the cutter and mov
ion, the history of newspaper progress becomes identical with that of the nation, the printing-press keeping closely in the van of Anglo-American civilization. The honor of publishing the first paper west of the Alleghanies is claimed for John Scull of Pittsburgh, who, it is stated, founded the Pittsburgh gazette in 1783. The first north of the Ohio River, being the third or fourth west of the Alleghanies, is said to have been the Centinel of the Northwest territory, by William Maxwell, 1793. According to De Saint Foix, the earliest French newspaper, called the Gazette de France, was established by Renaudot, a physician, who obtained a royal grant of the exclusive privilege of publishing the same for himself and family. He had previously been in the habit of collecting information and circulating news-sheets among his patients. The first German newspaper was established at Frankfort in 1615. An illustrated war gazette, the Niewtijdinge, published in the Low Countries, had
y means of a parachute, without injury. He afterward applied it to descending from a balloon, in 1793, but, the machine failing to expand fully, he broke his leg in alighting. The first successfulof the kind was a planetarium shown in London in 1791, and purchased by the English government in 1793, to be sent out with Lord Macartney on his embassy to China, as a present to the emperor of the Cf the slide-rest, which was invented by General Sir Samuel Bentham and described in his patent of 1793. The planing-machine dispensed, to a great extent, with chipping and filing, and is at the bot Ga., 1763; Quebec, Canada, 1764. The first press west of the Alleghany range was in Cincinnati, 1793. The first press west of the Mississippi, in St. Louis, 1808. Stereotyping was invented by Wider, and those which carry the type or printing plates on a revolving cylinder. See list on page 1793. The first printing-press was a common screw-press with a bed, standards, a beam, a screw, and
spiked down. The flange was put on the rail before it was put on the wheel. In 1789 Loughborough's cast-iron edge-rail, with flanges on the wagon wheels. In 1793 stone bearers were substituted for wooden sleepers at Little Eaton, in Derbyshire. Wrought-iron bars, two or three inches in thickness, spiked to longitudinal satham, England, and effected a great improvement in the manufacture of cables and cordage. See also English patents, — Sylvester, 1783; Seymour, 1784; Fothergill, 1793; Balfour, 1793, 1798; Chapman, 1797, 1799, 1807. In the year 1820, machinery was introduced into the United States from England, for working the spun yarn into 1793, 1798; Chapman, 1797, 1799, 1807. In the year 1820, machinery was introduced into the United States from England, for working the spun yarn into strands and ropes. Mr. Treadwell introduced his rope-making machinery in 1834. In the ordinary process of manufacture, the hemp, having been heckled and formed into skeins, is spun into yarn by a number of men, each of whom wraps a bundle of hemp around his body, and attaches one end to one of a series of hooks rotated by ba
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