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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 170 170 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 28 28 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 19 19 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 15 15 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 12 12 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 11 11 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Henry Walcott Boynton, Reader's History of American Literature 7 7 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 1 7 7 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 7 7 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 6 6 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1799 AD or search for 1799 AD in all documents.

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antially, was used by Von Rathen in 1848, at Putney, England, where he ran an airlocomotive at the rate of ten or twelve miles an hour. See compressed-air engine. 2. Those in which a body of air is condensed into a reservoir, placed at the bottom of a shaft, or in a situation where the prime motor cannot be set up. In this case the engine in the mine is run by the air from the reservoir during a lull in the force of the prime motor. This was the subject of a patent in England, to Medhurst, 1799. He condensed air to one fifteenth of its volume, and stored it for this purpose. The air-reservoirs of Fisk (U. S. patent, 1865) have a similar purpose. See air-compressing machine. Another form of air-engine has consisted of two chambers filled with air or gas, and connecting by pipes with the respective ends of a cylinder in which a piston reciprocates as the bodies of air in the said cylinders are alternately expanded and contracted. Stirling's engine (English patent, 1827) was of
inated cylinders covered with wire-gauze. The cane-rolling mill has also been used. 4. The resulting juice is heated to 140°, defecated by hydrate of lime, filtered and evaporated in a vacuum-pan. See condenser; evaporator; vacuum-pan; sugar-machinery; diffusion apparatus. Maceration and desiccation have each been tried with some degree of success. The first notice we find of the making of beet-root sugar was in 1747. Achard's (French) process made the manufacture a success in 1799. Napoleon encouraged it when the English cruisers destroyed the commerce of France, and cut her off from her sugar-producing colonies. It is now being tried in Illinois, Utah, and California. Be-lay′ing-pin. (Nautical.) A stout pin in the side of a vessel or round the masts, used for fastening or belaying ropes. There are several contrivances for belaying, differing especially in size. We may cite: — Belaying-pin.Cleat. Belaying-cleat.Kevel. Belaying-bitt.Riding-bitt.
s for mounting into a carriage. A carriage-step to be let down and raised by the opening and closing of the carriage-door was patented in England by Thomason in 1799. Carriage-top. 1. The cover of a carriage. Permanent in coaches; double calash in barouches and landaus; calash in some gigs, buggies, phaetons, etc.; curtaption of the image on the retina. This was beyond the skill of the oculist. A successful operation for cataract was performed, in the 25th Nivose (January 14), 1799, in the Hospice des Villards, Paris, on a man aged twenty-four, born blind. The operator was Citizen Fortenze, according to the affected style of the day. Cat′cal, and wagon boilers unsafe. (See Cornish-boiler). Smeaton introduced the flue into the boiler. The cylindrical return-flue boiler was patented by Wilkinson in 1799. Cylindrical lens. Cy-lin′dri-cal lens. A reading-glass whose back and front faces are formed by cylindrical surfaces, the diameters of which are at right
there is some variation in the trains of clocks and watches, and in other particulars, they are generally named according to the form of their escapement; as, — Anchor-escapement.Detached escapement. Chronometer-escapement.Duplex-escapement. Crown-wheel escapement.Electric-clock escapement. Cylinder-escapement.Horizontal escapement. Dead-beat escapement.Lever-escapement. Recoil-escapement.Vertical escapement. Remontoire-escapement.(Which see.) Verge-escapement. Goodrich, in 1799, substituted a crank for an escapement in clocks, and received a bounty of £ 65 from the London Society of Arts. Its advantage was silence. A number of curious and ingenious escapements may be found in works on horology, in Denison's volume in Weale's series; Brown's Five hundred and seven mechanical movements ; and Piaget's The watch; its history and manufacture. Es-cape — valve. (Steam-engine.) a. A loaded valve fitted to the end of the cylinder for the escape of the condensed s
agazine, April 1, 1800. Peat and turf cut into blocks and dried have been used any time these thousands of years past, but the business of preparing peat-fuel by mechanical means and by admixtures is comparatively modern. (See peat-machine. In 1603 Sir Hugh Platt published a book in which he described a new fuel block made of coal and loam in the manner of Lukeland of Germanie. He also used coal-slack, sawdust, tanner's bark, aggregated by loam and cow-dung. Chabanne's English patent of 1799 claimed separating the large coal from the small coal by passing the latter through sieves or gratings made of wood or metal, and then consolidating the small coal by mixing it with earth, clay, cow-dung, tar, pitch, broken glass, sulphur, sawdust, oil-cakes, tan, or wood, or any other combustible ingredient, to be mixed together and ground with a wheel in water, in a wooden vessel; this mixture he afterwards placed in pits provided with drains for the water to run off, and then, when dry, mo
of the double plow seems to have been Lord Somerville, who devoted much attention to the practical details of agriculture (1799). His plow, which he called a double-furrow plow, consisted of a beam suitably bent for the attachment of two plows, onreet, in 1794, proposed to use the expansive power of heated gas instead of its explosive power. Lebon's French patent of 1799 described the distillation of carbureted hydrogen from coal, and its introduction into the cylinder beneath the piston andf copper, and moistened at the edges with emery and oil. Bodier's improvements (French) in glass-engraving were made in 1799. The engraver sits at a small lathe with a little rack before him, containing about a score of the copper disks, varying .630.1540.221.86 Navy (Austrian)6038.121.8 Birkholtz (U. States)60382.0 Copper.Aluminum.Zinc.Iron. Keirs (English, 1799)1007510 Lancaster's (English)9010 See alloy. The Rosthorn (Austrian) alloys are known as sterro-metal. One varie<
oyle's patent, 1791. The steam ascended to the top of the building and passed downward. Lee of Manchester erected a heating apparatus of cast-iron pipes, which also served as supports for the floor. This was constructed by Boulton and Watt in 1799. Fig. 2473 shows one form of steam-heating apparatus, in which exhaust steam from the engine is conducted to a heater back of the second fire bridge, and thence by a stand-pipe to the sets of pipes on the different stories of the building. Ghe principle of absorption. 2. Those which act by condensation. 3. Those in which the hygrometric condition is deduced from observations of a wet and a dry bulb. Hygrometers 1. a. Of the first class is the hygrometer of Saussure (died 1799). It consists of a human hair boiled in lye, and acts by absorption and evaporation, as shown at a, Fig. 2628. A piece of catgut may be made to extend from a pin at one end, over a number of pulleys, and terminate at the lower end with a small wei
mble in appearance the meshes of a net. Net′ting. Open-work fabric for curtains or screens. See musquito-canopy, etc. Net′ting-ma-chine′. Lace is said to have been first made by machinery in 1768 by Hammond, a stocking-weaver of Nottingham, England, who invented what was known as the pin-machine, for making single-press point-lace in imitation of Brussels ground. The warp-frame for making warp-lace was introduced in 1782. The first attempt to make bobbinet by machinery was in 1799, but no successful machine was produced prior to 1809, when Heathcote patented his machine, in which, by means of bobbins, a series of diagonal weft-threads are passed around and intertwisted with the parallel threads of the warp. Many subsequent improvements were made on this machine, which has been variously modified to produce different kinds of netted fabrics, among which we may enumerate — The bobbinet-machine.Traverse-warp machine. Lever-machine.Twist-machine. Straight-bolt mach
ma of Edinburgh was painted in 1789. In 1792 he exhibited his panorama of London. Fulton introduced the art into France, 1799. In 1821, during the absence for repairs of the cross of St. Paul's, Barker erected an observatory at that giddy hight, a Didot, at Essone, France, announced that he had discovered a way of making sheets of paper of large size by machinery. 1799. Paper in an endless web actually made by Robert. 1800. 8,000 francs awarded by the French government to Robert for his a plane of the circles of the zodiac. The zodiac represented on the ceiling of the temple of Dendera was discovered in 1799 by the French savans, during their researches under Napoleon's orders. A periodical work of 1801 thus describes this workere hitched tandem, one ahead of the other, to the extent of three or four. A publication of that day (Housman's Travels, 1799) compares it with the superior husbandry of Norfolk. where horses were hitched abreast. The same writer states as follow
he team in front of the implement: one was in 1806; the others in 1820, 1822, 1823. As soon as this idea did occur to the inventors, they made the horse walk alongside the swath, cut by the knives, constituting what is known as the side cut. 1799. Boyce had a vertical shaft with six rotating scythes beneath the frame of the implement. This was the first patented reaper. 1800. Meares tried to adopt shears. 1805. Plucknett introduced a horizontal rotating circular blade. He had a scorse were introduced into the dockyard at Chatham, England, and effected a great improvement in the manufacture of cables and cordage. See also English patents, — Sylvester, 1783; Seymour, 1784; Fothergill, 1793; Balfour, 1793, 1798; Chapman, 1797, 1799, 1807. In the year 1820, machinery was introduced into the United States from England, for working the spun yarn into strands and ropes. Mr. Treadwell introduced his rope-making machinery in 1834. In the ordinary process of manufacture, t
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