ock describes an are in the plane of its length, presenting the rounded surface of the rotating apple to the knife, which cuts a continuous paring from the fruit, from the stem to the blossom end.
The first patents recorded are those of Coates, 1803, and Cruttenden, 1809; gates added the quartering in 1810.
The Patent-Office records perished in the fire of 1836.
We find that in Mitchel's patent, April 13, 1838, the first granted after the fire, that the knife was operated by hand while the e combustion is also greatly aided by the draft caused by the glass chimney, continually bringing fresh supplies of oxygen in contact with the flame and protecting it from currents of air. The chimney was the invention of L'Ange.
Argand died in 1803.
A French mechanic named Carcel patented an improvement in 1800, in which the oil is pumped from the reservoir to the wick by power derived from a spring or by the ascending column of air above the chimney.
This is called the Mechanical Lamp, an
e expressed by lines of different thickness and by isolated dots, and do not admit of the complete blending of tints necessary to imitate the effect of an oil-painting.
This was accomplished when the art of lithography was brought in aid. Baxter, 1803 – 1861, in England, produced some really pretty work by a combination of metallic plates and wooden blocks.
Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder, who was born at Prague, 1771.
(See lithography.) In short, it may be described as drawing John Wyatt, 1738.
Spinning-jenny, Hargreaves, 1767.
Water-frame, Arkwright, 1769.
Power-loom, Rev. D. E. Cartwright, 1785.
Cotton-gin, Eli Whitney, 1794.
Dressing-machine, Johnson and Radcliffe, 1802– 1804.
Power-loom, Horrocks, 1803-1813.
Mule, Samuel Crompton, 1774-1779.
Self-acting mule, Roberts, 1825.
See cotton, flax, wool, hemp, silk, etc., appliances, p. 631.
A cotton-factory cited by Ure has machines in the following proportions:—
1 willow, 1 blowing-mac<
A collapsing and expanding propeller which offers but little resistance in the non-effective motion, but expands to its full breadth in delivering the effective stroke, forming a kind of folding oar which opens to act against the water when pushed outward, and closes when drawn back at the end of the stroke.
The idea was taken from the foot of a duck, and was first tried by the celebrated Bernoulli, afterwards by Genevois, a Swiss clergyman, about 1757; then by Earl Stanhope about 1803.
It was used on the river Thames about 1830.
Nairn's propelling apparatus, English patent, 1828, has the contractile retreat and expanding advance, the advance being understood to mean the effective stroke.
An instrument invented by M. Regnier for ascertaining the relative ductility of metals.
The metal to be tested is subjected to the action of blows from a mass of iron of given weight attached to a lever, and the effect produced <
walls of the establishment.
Trafalgar, Austerlitz, and Jena, within four years afterwards, is a curious commentary.
In 1801, Le Bon, of Paris, lighted his house and garden, and proposed to light the city of Paris.
The English periodicals of 1803 and thereabout refer to the proposition of Murdoch to use the gas obtained by the distillation of coal, and state that the use of the gas for light, heat, ammonia, or oil would be an infringement of the patent of the Earl of Dundonald; farther, throom with moisture, and would render it necessary to wring out the curtains and other linen furniture of the apartments on the morning subsequent to the illumination by the burning of the coal smoke. — Monthly Magazine, London, June 1, 1805.
In 1803 – 4, Winsor lighted the Lyceum Theater and took out a patent for lighting streets by gas. He established the first gas-company.
In 1804 – 5, Murdoch lighted the cotton-factory of Philips and Lee, Manchester, the light being estimated as equal t<
e that the high-pressure, double-acting engine was to be the engine of the future, both on roads and boats.
He was active in the running of his hobby from 1787 to 1803, and in the former year obtained a patent from the State of Maryland for steam-carriages on common roads.
His townsmen thought him crazy, and he could obtain no patent in Pennsylvania.
He exhibited his engine running in 1803, sawing wood and stone, and grinding plaster.
He put it on wheels and made it move itself to the Schuylkill, put it on board a scow, and made it drive a sternwheel, working down the river to the junction with the Delaware, and then up the latter to the city of brothe
A tubular railroad rail, steam heated to prevent the accretion of snow and ice. Grime's English patent, 1831.
In Woodhouse's English patent, 1803, the rail forms a water-pipe.
Hol′lows and rounds.
（Joinery.) Concave and convex planes, respectively for working moldings.
The illustration shows the use<
clusive right to make steam-wagons for roads and railways.
The details of the invention are not known to the writer.
His descendants in the third generation are yet inventing.
He is entitled to the credit of first making the double-acting high-pressure steam-engine a success.
In 1801, he built a floating dredging-machine, to which he fitted wheels connected with the engine, and conveyed it 1 1/2 miles to the place of launching.
See high-pressure steamengine.
It is stated that about 1803, a Mr. Fredericks made a locomotive for a silver-mine in Hanover.
The principles of construction are unknown.
In 1806, a locomotive to be driven by hot air was constructed by Niepce at Chalons, France.
Trevethick's locomotive had a single cylinder, laid horizontally below the bottom or front part of the boiler, its reciprocating piston-rod being connected by another rod with a crank, at the midlength of an axle which carried a fly-wheel and a pair of cog-wheels, which geared into other
foot in its mode of operation.
Earl Stanhope revived the idea about 1803.
7. Floats in reciprocating frames.
A number ic gravity, 11.8; difficult to fuse.
Discovered by Dr. Wollaston in 1803.
It is a white, malleable, ductile, hard metal; fusible with the onkin completed his first machine, acting on the ideas of Robert, in 1803; and in the succeeding year, Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier purchased t
He also discovered a process for extracting ink from old paper.
1803. Bryan Donkin produced a self-acting paper machine on Robert's plan.irst metallic pens regularly introduced for sale were by Wise, about 1803.
They were made in barrel form, being adapted to slip on a stick, aplied to fire-arms by the Rev. Mr. Forsyth of Belhelvie, England, in 1803.
The interior mechanism may be the same as that formerly used in led cast-iron plowshare was patented by Ransome of Ipswich, England, 1803.
The under side and points are hardened, and the top wears away, le
of 2 1/3 inches, and a flange to keep it on the rail.
The sleepers were of wood.
Woodhouse's hollow rail (e), with a channel for the rounded edge of the wheel, 1803.
The fish-bellied rail at Penrhyn, 1805.
Blenkinsop's rack-rail (f), 1811.
See Fig. 2984, page 1344.
A square-bodied cast rail (g), 1810.
Losh and Stes.
N is a valve for regulating the draft.
A mill for removing the husk of paddy.
A kind of paper introduced into England about 1803 by Dr. Livingstone, and named from its supposed material.
It was understood to be a sort of dried pulp of rice.
It is, however, made of the pith of a leguminoun.
Desaguliers had proposed the use of rockets in modern warfare, but the first actually employed was introduced by Colonel, afterward Sir William, Congreve, in 1803.
The Congreve rocket consist of a sheet-iron case filled with a composition of niter, sulphur, and charcoal pulverized, and having a head which may be either so
e castiron share in 1785.
He patented the case-hardening of the upper edge in 1803, so that the share became self-sharpening.
b. The blade in a seeding-machine rojects for steam-navigation.
Experiments on the Seine were instituted.
and in 1803 a paddle-boat 60 feet long was launched on the river.
A previous boat had been hen is conducted to the chimney.
Woolf's steam-boiler, patented in England in 1803, and very successful at the Cornish mines, was an extension of the cylindrical slaque, 1685.
The first steel-pen in regular use was made by Wise, in London, in 1803, and for several years thereafter.
Under great discouragement he persistently chite, and regarded the veins as a detriment.
Oliver Evans of Philadelphia, in 1803, had a double-acting high-pressure steam-engine at work grinding plaster and sawdon.
His oil lamps eventually gave way to Murdock's gaslamps, 1798; and Winsor, 1803.
An order was issued in Paris, in the year 1524, that the inhabitants should
rgest kind of tubular girder.
Tub′u-lar goods Sew′ing-ma-chine′.
The Akins and Felthousen patent of August 5, 1851, was the first machine to sew tubular goods, such as shirtsleeves, boot-legs, etc.; and in 1865 it was estimated that 50,000 sewing-machines, embracing one or the other of the features of this improvement, were in use.
A railway-rail having a continuous longitudinal opening which serves as
A duct for water; Woodhouse English patent, 1803; or
A steam-pipe to prevent the accretion of ice or snow upon the track; Grimes's English patent, 1831.
Montgomery's tubular rail has its upper and lower faces alike, so that it may be reversed when injured by wear.
It is held on one side by a rabbet in the longitudinal sill upon which it is laid, and on the other by locking plates secured by bolts pass- ing through the sills and ties.
A number of other forms might be mentioned.
One in which an additional or