a brewery, which in a few hours became pleasantly impregnated with the escaping gas. He found upon experiment that the impregnation was accelerated by pouring the water from one vessel into another; but it did not occur to him till the year 1772 that this could be effected by the gases dislodged from decomposing chalk and other calcareous substances confined in an air-tight vessel.
Dr. John North's apparatus for impregnating water with carbonic acid was invented in 1775.
Between the years 1807 and 1852 thirty-one English patents were granted for apparatus and methods for preparing aerated water, and fifteen patents for vessels to hold such waters, and for methods for bottling.
The most common beverage is Carbonic Acid Water, generally spoken of as soda-water, though it seldom contains any soda.
It is prepared in large quantities by placing whiting, chalk, or marble-dust in an air-tight, lead-lined vessel with water and sulphuric acid.
The sulphuric acid combines with the lime to
so apparently small a problem may be solved.
The name and date are simply given, as the construction and operation will be generally understood without special explanation.
g.Swett,Oct. 23,1866; reissued May 7, ‘72.
o.Adams,Feb Mason's and bricklayer's tools, etc.
Bricks have been made by machinery for many years.
Some of the early United States patents, of which the record was unfortunately burned in 1836, are dated 1792, 1793, 1800, 1802, 1806, 1807, and a tolerably constant stream has followed them.
About 122 patents were granted in the United States previous to June, 1836, for brick and tile machines, and more than 500 patents have since that time been granted for brick-machines.
The sudden combustion of a substance for the purpose of producing some change in its composition by the joint action of heat and oxygen.
It is usually performed by projecting in a red-hot crucible, in small portions at a time, a mixture of about equal parts of the body to be oxidized, and nitrate or chlorate of potash or other energetic oxydizer.
An instrument for producing intense heat.
It is generally a form of the voltaic battery.
Such was used by Davy in 1807 – 8, when he decomposed soda, potash, borax, and lime.
In the form invented by Dr. Hare of Philadelphia, it is composed of a single sheet each of copper and zinc rolled helically upon a central cylinder of wood.
The two metals are prevented from touching each other by intervening pieces of cloth or twine.
It is dipped in a tub of acidulated water, and derives its name from its powerful heating effects.
An instrument for measuring the deflection of a rail by a wei
Nicholson and Carlisle discovered, in 1800, that water was decomposed by the voltaic pile, hydrogen being evolved at the negative and oxygen at the positive end of the wire.
Davy, afterwards Sir Humphry Davy, by the aid of the apparatus of the Royal Institution at London, the most powerful then in existence, proved by a series of experiments, commencing in 1801, that many substances hitherto considered as elementary bodies could be decomposed by voltaic action, and succeeded in 1807 in resolving the fixed alkalies soda and potash.
Faraday, 1833, besides his extensive additions to the science of electro-magnetism, established the fact that the chemical power of a current of electricity is in direct proportion to the absolute quantity of electricity which passes; and farther proved that the quantities required for decomposing compound bodies were proportional to the atomic weights of Dalton.
Bain's telegraph (1845) was the first in which these scientific facts were so
(For early notices, see gunpowder.) The cracker was used as a grenade anciently in China, and in the 8th century by the Greeks.
The first fire-arms used in Europe were cannon.
(See artillery; cannon.) Fire-arms to be carried by the soldier were a later invention.
The arquebus was used in 1480.
The musket by Charles V. in 1540.
These used matches or match-locks.
The wheel-lock was invented 1517; the flint-lock about 1692.
The percussion principle by the Rev. Mr. Forsythe, in 1807.
For varieties, see under the following heads: —
ing estimated as equal to 3,000 candles.
This was the largest undertaking up to that date.
In 1807, Winsor lighted one side of Pall Mall, London; the first street lighting.
Westminster Bridge wrks, and having branches and distributing pipes.
See also hydraulic main, invented by Clegg in 1807, and forming a part of the gas-producing works.
A device for measuring the quanmeter at the sitting of the Institute, October 6, 1797.
The wet-meter was invented by Clegg in 1807, and improved by Crosley in 1815.
The dry-meter was invented by Malam in 1820, and improved by Dgas by passing it through limewater is the invention of Mr. Clegg, England, and was introduced in 1807.
The ordinary illuminating gas, after having been evolved in the retort, its tar eliminated intery, throwing it back and dropping a shower of sparks into the pan containing the priming.
In 1807 Rev. Mr. Forsyth obtained a patent in England for a fulminating powder, which was to be placed in
atented the application of high-pressure steam to engines.
Trevethick is described in the Catalogue of the South Kensington Museum, London, as the inventor and constructor of the first high-pressure steam-engine, and of the first steam-carriage used in England.
Blackett improved on Trevethick, and used smooth wheels on a plate-way.
The multitubular boiler is stated to have been used by Rumsey, and subsequently, in 1790, in England.
It was used by John Cox Stevens of New Jersey, 1791 – 1807; English patent, May 31, 1805.
He used a Watt engine, cylinder 4 1/2 inches diameter, 9 inches stroke.
Boiler 2 feet long, 15 inches wide, and 12 inches high, with 81 copper tubes 1 inch in diameter.
Boat, 25 feet long, 5 feet beam; tried in May, 1804; velocity, 4 to 8 miles per hour.
Not desiring to anticipate what should be said under locomotive and steamboat, suffice it to say that William Hadley's locomotive Puffing Billy was built in 1813, and had a long career of usefulness.
Argand burners and paraboloid reflectors were substituted for wax candles in the Eddystone lighthouse in 1807.
In the dioptric light the beams are transmitted through lenses, instead of being reflected by mirrors.
Lenses werwith twentyfour candles.
It is now a catoptric light, — an Argand lamp and parabolic reflectors.
The change was made in 1807.
The Bell Rock lighthouse (c), on the rock once called the Inch-Cape and celebrated in a ditty by Southey, was erected 1807 – 10.
The rock is off the Frith of Forth, and is 230 × 427 feet, eleven miles from land.
The surface is bare at low water.
The lighthouse is built in the manner of the Eddystone, the stones being joggled together, and the layers doweled togetng years in comfort, occaionally trotting out his hobbies.
He died in 1823, aged 80.
Steam was applied to his looms in 1807.
Fig. 2998 shows the working parts of a powerloom, the framing being omitted.
The warp a is wound upon the warp-beam
75 shows the paddle-wheel used by Fulton on the Clermont in 1807.
This was the first steamboat which can be called a practiir revolution.
Machinery of Fulton's steamboat Clermont (1807).
In Galloway's patent of 1829 the revolution of the whn his lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanic Arts, 1807, Vol.
I. p. 19, ascribes the first com- bination of the pge in the gun.
Detonating powder or pellets were used in 1807, having been patented in England by Rev. Mr. Forsyth for usand was superseded by the cabinet, invented by Southwell in 1807, in which the frame was brought down to the floor and the b and landside all cast together.
Peacock, in his patent of 1807, cast his plow in three pieces, the point of the colter entof the alkali potassa was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807.
It is a brilliant, silver-white metal, tarnishes immediatatented it April 4, 1785.
Steam was applied to his loom in 1807.
He received a Parliamentary grant of £ 10,000 in 1808.
he fingers having the function of shear-blades.
The forward draft was also adopted by Mann in 1820, and by Ogle, 1822, in his reciprocating cutter-bar machine.
1807. Salmon had a machine with some new features,—a row of vibrating knives over stationary blades; fingers to gather the grain to the cutters; a rake, suspended and rd with a fuse, so as to burst at or before the time of striking.
These rockets were first employed in the attack on Boulogne, in 1806, and again at Copenhagen, in 1807.
They were also used at the battle of Leipsic, 1813, by the British rocket troop, an organization which is still maintained in that service.
In Hale's rocket, in the manufacture of cables and cordage.
See also English patents, — Sylvester, 1783; Seymour, 1784; Fothergill, 1793; Balfour, 1793, 1798; Chapman, 1797, 1799, 1807.
In the year 1820, machinery was introduced into the United States from England, for working the spun yarn into strands and ropes.
Mr. Treadwell introduced h