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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 155 155 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 37 37 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 31 31 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 24 24 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 22 22 Browse Search
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF MEDFORD, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, IN 1630, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1855. (ed. Charles Brooks) 18 18 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 12 12 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 11 11 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 9 9 Browse Search
Jefferson Davis, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government 9 9 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1808 AD or search for 1808 AD in all documents.

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n calls him, was endorsed by General Bentham, the Inspector-General of Naval Works, and sanctioned by the Lords of the Admiralty in a remarkably short space of time, — one year. The work on the machinery was commenced in 1802, and was finished in 1808. The machines were set up in Portsmouth Dock-yard, and a duplicate set was made for Chatham Dock-yard, to be used in case of accident, but has not been needed. For twenty-five years the machines required no essential repairs. the cost was $230,. With these machines 4 men do the work of 50 in making shells, and 6 men do the work of 60 in making sheaves; total, 10 men doing the work of 110 previously working by hand. The amount actually supplied was about 135,000 blocks per annum from 1808 to 1816. 1,500 blocks are required in rigging a ship of the line, besides dead-eyes, say 160. The sawing-machines are employed on one side of the house to cut the elm and ash timbers into parallelopipedons of the required sizes and shapes; and
ing upon one of the vertical edges. A French window. Case—pa′per. The outside quires of a ream. Case—shot. Case-shot, or shrapnel, as they are frequently termed, from the name of the English officer by whom they were introduced, about 1808, are a thin species of shell filled with bullets, and having a fuse which is so cut or arranged as to burst the case about sixty yards in front of the object fired at, so as to scatter the bullets over a considerable space. This, under favorable s inventor is not known. General Bentham contrived the bench, slit, parallel guide, and sliding bevel guide. He also invented making circular saws of segmental plates. One was patented in England by Trotter, 1804. Brunel's veneer-saw, 1805-1808. The double saw-mill shown in the illustration is of the Blandy pattern, selected from a multitude of others as a good specimen of its kind. a is the frame of the saw-mill proper, b the ways on which the log-carriage c traverses, g is the lowe<
nvention of the electro-magnetic telegraph: the properties of the magnet, the modes of developing frictional electricity, and voltaic electricity. The earlier electric telegraphs were all what their name implies, and not electro-magnetic. See electric telegraph. To save repetition, reference is here made to magnet, electricity, electric telegraph, voltaic pile, galvanic battery, for the precedent discoveries and inventions which are the foundation of the electro-magnetic telegraph. In 1808, Sommering described a system invented by him, based upon the decomposition of water by the voltaic pile, embracing a number of wires equal to that of the alphabet and the numerals, and leading into glass tubes containing water, the bubbles of gas from which, when the electric fluid was conducted into them, served as signals. Professor Coxe, of Pennsylvania, about the same time suggested telegraphing by means of the decomposition of metallic salts. Oersted, in 1820, after many years' re
casually brought in contact. The cumulative effect of a number of simple batteries b (Fig. 2148) may be obtained by bringing them all into one circuit. Each copper plate is connected by a copper wire to the zinc of the next glass, and each transmits the electric current derived from the chemical action in its own glass, in addition to that derived from the action in the preceding glasses. The trough-battery c c′ was used by Sir Humphry Davy in his series of magnificent discoveries, 1806-8, when he isolated the metallic bases, calcium, sodium, potassium, etc. His trough had 2,000 double plates of copper and zinc, each having a surface of 32 square inches. It is like the compound battery just cited, except that instead of separate glasses, a row of water-tight cells are made in a single trough c′, and the plates are united to a bar of wood c and connected by wires, the copper of each to the zinc of the next pair, and so on all through. This arrangement of the plates enables t
latter brought into action devices which shortened the strings, in the manner of a guitar. We read of an instrument in 1600 which had a key for each string, but this was unusual at that time. Pedals were introduced 1720; double-action about 1808. 2. A concave grating in a scutching-machine, through which refuse escapes as the cotton is beaten and driven forward by the revolving beater. 3. (Husbandry.) A Scotch grain-sieve for removing weed-seeds from grain. Harp′ing-i′ron. Aafter his death, and ran on the Thames four miles an hour against wind and tide. Dr. Franklin planned a boat of this kind in 1785, and it has since been tried on the Scheldt, two turbines being used for pumps. Linnaker's hydraulic propeller, 1808, had pumps placed horizontally beneath the bottom of the vessel. The pistons were attached to hanging levers which were oscillated by the power of the steam-engine. The pistons reciprocated in longitudinal trunks parallel to the keel. In a se
nter, about 1785. That of the external iliac by Abernethy, 1796. The internal iliac by Alexander Stevens, in 1812. The common iliac successfully by Dr. Valentine Mott, in 1827. The common carotid by Sir Astley Cooper (successfully), in 1808. The innominata by Mott in 1818, and successfully by Dr. J. W. Smythe in 1864. Ambrose Pare, born at Laval, in France, in 1509, was a member of the fraternity of barber-surgeons; but, such was the reputation he acquired as an operator, he wasiness of his own contrivance. He went on improving, and took out his last patent 1787. He met with the trouble incident to great inventors, — an ignorant populace and rich pirates. He spent £ 30,000 in his endeavors to perfect his loom, and in 1808 received a Parliamentary grant of £ 10,000 for his great national services. On this sum he retired to a farm in Kent, and spent his declining years in comfort, occaionally trotting out his hobbies. He died in 1823, aged 80. Steam was applied
n agreed ratio. Free passage is allowed to the flocks through the cultivated territories, and great hardship results. The power of this tyrannical corporation was somewhat reduced by the French, during their temporary occupancy of the country, 1808 – 12; a better legacy than any left by the succeeding English occupation, which was all in the interest of aristocracy and monopoly. The merinos are now kept in immense numbers in Australia and Van Dieman's Land. Turdetania, the country of th cut the sides of the mortise a little in advance of the chisel edge. It is the invention of Brunel or Maudslay, being applied in the mortising-machine invented by the former and constructed by the latter in Portsmouth Dock-Yard, England, in 1802-8. (See Fig. 3240.) i j are mortising-machine chisels whose lips are so formed that the chisel, on being withdrawn, clears the mortise of the core or chips. The chisel k is a double one, each limb having two lips, adapting the tool to cut a doubl
f combining wood and metal in the framing was invented. This was adopted in part by Broadwood in 1808, and in 1820 Stodard patented the first complete system of metallic bracing, also including a meaenomenon was followed by the discoveries of Malus, Arago, Fresnel, Brewster, and Biot. Malus, in 1808, discovered polarization by reflection from polished surfaces; and Arago, in 1811, discovered col, 1785. Steam was applied to his loom in 1807. He received a Parliamentary grant of £ 10,000 in 1808. He died in 1823, aged 80. See loom; weaving. Poy. (Nautical.) A steering-pole. Poyr smoking the celebrated Westphalia hams. Corn-cobs are frequently used. Exclusion of air. In 1808, M. Appert invented a process for preserving provisions by parboiling, and inclosing them in eart Alleghany range was in Cincinnati, 1793. The first press west of the Mississippi, in St. Louis, 1808. Stereotyping was invented by William Ged of Edinburgh, in 1725; inking-rollers, by Nicholson;
le-grooving saws. The circular saw is well described in Miller's English patent, No. 1,152, of 1777. The band-saw is described in Newberry's English patent, 1808. See also wood-working machine and list under saw, infra. A circular saw was made with blacksmiths' tools by Benjamin Cummins, at Bentonsville, N. Y., about cating paddles1789 Destruction of Denys Papin's steamboat in 1695, by the Bargemen of the Seine (by Figuier). See list under steam. See also propeller, pages 1808, 1809. Fig. 5605 shows a view of Papin's boat as it existed in the imagination of M. Figuier. It is next to impossible to exaggerate the merits of M Denys Per between New York and New Brunswick, when Mr. Stevens conceived the project of sending it around to Philadelphia by sea, which he successfully carried out. In 1808 it left New York for Philadelphia, in charge of his son. Robert L. Stevens. On the passage a storm arose, but the Phoenix made a safe harbor at Barnegat whence it
l, parallel and in motion. m, taper and in motion. n, enlarged end and at rest. Form of Joint. o, but or jump. p, scarf or lap. The excellence attained in making tubes has been owing to the persistent attempts at perfection in manufacturing two articles, — gun-barrels, and tubes for steam-engine boilers and condensers. The series of English patents on this subject may be thus enumerated, — the letters in parentheses have reference to the diagram, Fig. 6718: — Cook, 1808 (a i j l p) 1. Forge a round bar, drill a hole longitudinally; elongate by draw-plates, or grooved rollers, over a mandrel. 2. Turn a skelp over a mandrel; weld, and draw as before. 3. Force a circular plate of iron through a series of holes in a die, giving it a cup-shape, which is eventually opened at bottom and elongated to a cylinder, by drawing as before. James and Jones, 1811 (b c m p). 1. The heated skelp is turned over a mandrel, and swaged by a hammer, while resting in a g<
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