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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 182 182 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 33 33 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 19 19 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 17 17 Browse Search
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 15 15 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 12 12 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 2 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 9 9 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 9 9 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 8 8 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 2 7 7 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1811 AD or search for 1811 AD in all documents.

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oad-engineering.) A third, or middle, rail placed between the ordinary rails of a track, and used on inclined planes in connection with wheels on the locomotive in ascending or descending the grade. The first of these was Blenkinsop's patent of 1811. The middle rail was a rack, and was engaged by a cogged wheel on the locomotive by which the ascent was secured. No particular provision was made for descent. The device was primarily intended as an aid to traction, as it was supposed at thashackles at every 15 fathoms, sometimes swivels at 7 1/2 fathoms. Chain-cables were made in England by machinery in 1792, and introduced into the British merchantservice by Captain Brown of the Penelope, West India merchantman, 400 tons burden, 1811. The cable had twisted links. Brunton patented the stay in the middle of the link. See chain. The chain-cable was introduced into the British navy in 1812. In making chain-cables, the bar of 1, 1 1/2, or 2 inch iron is heated, and the
y.) A pulley for directing or changing the line of motion of a belt, but not otherwise concerned in the transmission of motion. Guide-rail. An additional rail, usually placed midway between the two ordinary rails of a railway track, and employed in connection with devices on the engine, carriages, or both, in preventing the rolling-stock from running off the track. The center-rail gripped by horizontally rotating wheels acts as a guide-rail. Blenkinsop's rack-rail (English patent, 1811) was used as a means of progression in connection with a spur-wheel on the engine, and not as a guide. Following him was Snowden's middle-rack and mechanical horse. See center-rail. Easton's center rail (English patent, 1825) fulfilled two purposes; its upper edge formed a rack and served, in connection with a spur-wheel on the locomotive, as a means of progression; its sides formed a guide-rail in connection with pairs of horizontally rotating rollers underneath the carriages of th
as commonly used in blast-furnaces. In 1760 Smeaton erected at the Carron works the first large blowing cylinders, and shortly after Boulton and Watt supplied the steam-engines by which the blowers were driven. Peter Onions, in his patent of 1783, described the rationale of the puddling process; and Henry Cort, of Gosport, in 1784, made it practicable, and added grooved rolls, by which the puddled bar was drawn. Neilson, of Glasgow, introduced the hot blast in 1828. Aubulot, in France, in 1811, and Budd, in England, in 1845, heated the blast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. The Calder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed. Experiments in smelting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing abou
f five miles per hour. Vivian was associated with Trevethick in the patent. It was high-pressure, non-condensing, and exhausted into the chimney. It may be considered the first locomotive to run on rails or trams. Blenkinsop's locomotive, in 1811, gave still better satisfaction to its owners, and it was usefully employed at the Middleton Colliery in hauling coals on a tramway, the engine having spur-wheels working into a rack on one side of the track. The engine (A, Fig. 2984) was otherwiregular use. It drew trains of 30 tons weight 3 3/4 miles per hour. In 1812, Blackett made a series of experiments which proved that the expedient of a pinion and rack-rail was unnecessary; and Chapman patented a A, Blenkinsop's locomotive (1811). B, Hedley's locomotive (1813)> locomotive with eight wheels driven by gearing, for the purpose of increasing the tractive adhesion. In the same year, Brunton invented a means of driving a locomotive by two propellers consisting of jointed rods
n, in England, made about 4,000 experiments for discovering and explaining the cause of the diurnal variation of the needle. La Perouse sailed from France with instructions and instruments, intending to make special observations at remote stations in regard to the variation and dip of the needle. The lamented death of the Admiral and destruction of his vessels in 1788 prevented the results from being communicated to the scientific world. M. Hansteen of Denmark undertook the subject in 1811, and in 1819 published his celebrated work Upon the magnetism of the earth. He treated the matter historically and scientifically, making a variation chart for 1787. The agonic line, or line of no variation, where the magnetic and geographical lines coincide, was discovered by Columbus in 1492, about 100 miles west of the Azores. Like other magnetic lines, it appears to have shifted. Hansteen's observations confirmed in great detail the position of Halley, that the whole magnetical syst
olls. Cutting-cylinders were used by Bentham thirty-five years before, and rollers for feeding lumber to circular saws were described in Hammond's English patent, 1811. Richards's roller-feeding planing-machine (B, Fig. 3795) is a small machine of the cylinder class, adapted for preparing lumber for pattern-makers and others. find credits to Clements of London, who was a workman in Bramah's shop; to Fox of Derby, and to Roberts and Rennie of Manchester. Bramah, it appears, employed, in 1811, the revolving cutter to plane iron, thus adapting to metal the form found best adapted to wood-working, and which survives in our milling-machines, now so much anlowed by the discoveries of Malus, Arago, Fresnel, Brewster, and Biot. Malus, in 1808, discovered polarization by reflection from polished surfaces; and Arago, in 1811, discovered colored polarization. A world of wonders of variously modified waves of light gifted with new properties was now opened. A ray of light which reaches
earing rails of a railway, and having cogs into which meshes a cogwheel on the locomotive. Blenkinsop's English patent, 1811. This had a toothed rail laid down on one side of the railway, from end to end. A cog-wheel was rigged out from the locomchannel for the rounded edge of the wheel, 1803. The fish-bellied rail at Penrhyn, 1805. Blenkinsop's rack-rail (f), 1811. See Fig. 2984, page 1344. A square-bodied cast rail (g), 1810. Losh and Stephenson's flanged rail (h), 1816. Thisy, and patented by Bailey (Fig. 4200) in 1822 was of this character. Two machines by Smith, of Deanstone, in England, in 1811, and Scott, of Ormiston, in 1815, were made on this principle, were used practically, and had considerable local celebrity. Smith's machine was illustrated in Hall's Dictionary, in 3 vol., folio, 1811. Gladstone's reaping-machine 1806). 1806. Gladstone patented his front-draft, side-cut, revolvingknife machine. A segment bar with fingers gathered the grain and h
rward Boulton and Watt supplied the steam-engines by which the blowers were driven. Neilson, of Glasgow, introduced the hot blast in 1828. Aubulos, in France, in 1811, and Budd, in England, in 1845, heated the blast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. In the smelting of iron four tons weight of gaseous products are eet, and tonnage 120 to 337, prior to the practical working of any steamboat in Europe. Fulton built the first steamboat on the Western rivers, at Pittsburg, in 1811. The Orleans, of 100 tons, was a sternwheeler, took her first freight at Natchez for New Orleans, and plied for three or four years on the river between those poirude affair. Finlay constructed a chain-bridge in this country in 1796, over Jacob's Creek, between Uniontown and Greensburg, Pa., taking out a patent in 1801; in 1811 eight bridges had been built on his plan, which does not seem, however, to have recommended itself to the public generally, as we hear no more of it after that dat
See also telephone. Although Franklin, in 1748, fired spirits by means of a spark transmitted across the Schuylkill, the first distinct plan for a telegraphic alarm to call the attention of an operator or correspondent was by Schweigger, about 1811. He proposed a pistol, charged with a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen gases, to be fired by a spark derived from the long electric wire proceeding from the distant station. Telegraphic alarm. Fig. 6239 is an alarm with an escapement. a is p over a mandrel; weld, and draw as before. 3. Force a circular plate of iron through a series of holes in a die, giving it a cup-shape, which is eventually opened at bottom and elongated to a cylinder, by drawing as before. James and Jones, 1811 (b c m p). 1. The heated skelp is turned over a mandrel, and swaged by a hammer, while resting in a grooved anvil. 2. Welded and rolled by grooved rollers. Osborne, 1817 (b c d e n p). The skelp is turned and welded on a mandrel, which has