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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 18 18 Browse Search
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 1 1 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Biddle, James, 1783-1848 (search)
Biddle, James, 1783-1848 Naval officer; born in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 29, 1783; was edueated at the University of Pennsylvania, and entered the navy, as midshipman, Feb. 12, 1800. He was wrecked in the frigate Philadelphia, off Tripoli, in October, 1803, and was a prisoner nineteen months. As first lieutenant of the Wasp, he led the boarders in the action with the Frolic, Oct. 18, 1812. Captured by the Poitiers. he was exchanged in March, 1813; and was made master commander in charge of a flotilla of gunboats in the Delaware River soon afterwards. In command of the Hornet he captured the Penguin. March 23, 1813. For this victory Congress voted him a gold medal. Made captain in February, 1815, he held important commands in different parts of the world. While in command of a squadron in the Mediterranean (1830-32), he was given a commission to negotiate a commercial treaty with the Turkish government. In 1845 he performed diplomatic service in China, and visited Japan.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cass, Lewis 1782-1866 (search)
Cass, Lewis 1782-1866 Statesman; born in Exeter, N. H., Oct. 9, 1782; entered upon the practice of law about 1802, in Zanesville, O., and at the age of twenty-five was a member of the legislature. He was colonel of an Ohio regiment, under General Hull, in 1812, and was with the troops surrendered at Detroit (q. v.). In March, 1813, he was made a brigadier-general, and was volunteer aide to General Harrison at the battle of the Thames (q. v.), when he was appointed governor of Michigan Territory. As superintendent of Indian affairs in that region, he negotiated nineteen treaties with the Indians. In 1829 he organized a scientific expedition to explore the upper Mississippi. In 1831 he resigned the governorship and became Secretary of War, under President Jackson. From 1836 to 1842 he was United States minister to France, and from 1845 to 1848 United States Senator. He received the Democratic nomination Lewis Cass. for President in 1848, but was defeated, and was again i
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Croghan, George 1746-1782 (search)
lement 4 miles above Fort Pitt (now Pittsburg). He was active in securing the attachment of the Indians to the British interest until 1776, but took no active part in the events of the Revolution. He died in Passayunk, Pa., in August, 1782. Military officer; born near Louisville, Ky., Nov. 15, 1791; educated at the College of William and Mary, which he left in 1810; was aide to Colonel Boyd in the battle of Tippecanoe (q. v.) in 1811, and made captain of infantry in March, 1812. In March, 1813, he became an aide of General Harrison, and in August of the same year sustained the siege of Fort Stephenson (q. v.) against a force of British and Indians, for which he was brevetted a captain and awarded a gold medal by Congress. He was made lieutenant-colonel early in 1814, and resigned in 1817. Colonel Croghan was postmaster at New Orleans in 1824, and late in the next year was appointed inspector-general of the army, with the rank of colonel. He served under Taylor at the beginni
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Davie, William Richardson, -1820 (search)
troop he annexed it to Pulaski's Legion. He fought at Stono, Hanging Rock, and Rocky Mount; and at the head of a legionary corps, with the rank of major, he opposed the advance of Cornwallis into North Carolina. After the overthrow of the American army at Camden he saved the remnant of it; and he was a most efficient commissary under General Greene in the Southern Department. He rose to great eminence as a lawyer after the war, and was a delegate to the convention that framed the national Constitution, but sickness at home compelled him to leave before the work was accomplished. In the convention of North Carolina he was its most earnest and able supporter. In 1799 he was governor of North Carolina, but was soon afterwards sent as one of the envoys to the French Directory. Very soon after his return he withdrew from public life. In March, 1813, he was appointed a major-general, but declined the service on account of bodily infirmities. He died in Camden, S. C., Nov. 8, 1820.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gallatin, Albert 1761- (search)
aken. Should the United States become involved in war with both France and Great Britain, no internal taxes would be necessary to carry it on, nor any other financial expedient, beyond borrowing money and doubling the duties on imports. The scheme, afterwards tried, bore bitter fruit. Gallatin's influence was felt in other departments of the government and in the politics of the country. Opposed to going to war with Great Britain in 1812, he exerted all his influence to avert it. In March, 1813, he was appointed one of the envoys to Russia to negotiate for the mediation of the Czar between the United States and Great Britain. He sailed for St. Petersburg, but the Senate, in special session, refused to ratify his appointment because he was Secretary of the Treasury. The attempt at mediation was unsuccessful. When, in January, 1814, Great Britain proposed a direct negotiation for peace, Gallatin, who was still abroad, was appointed one of the United States commissioners to nego
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), General Armstrong, the (search)
merchants of New York fitted out no less than twenty-six fast-sailing privateers and letters-of-marque within 120 days after the declaration of war (1812), carrying about 200 pieces of artillery, and manned by over 2,000 seamen. Among the most noted of these privateers was the General Armstrong, a moderatesized schooner, mounting a Long Tom 42-pounder and eighteen carronades. Her complement was 140 men; her first commander was Captain Barnard; her second, Capt. G. R. Champlin. Early in March, 1813, while Champlin was cruising off the Surinam River, on the coast of South America, he gave chase to the British sloop-of-war Coquette, mounting twenty-seven guns and manned by 126 men and boys. They engaged in conflict between nine and ten o'clock (March 11, 1813). Supposing his antagonist to be a British letter-of-marque, Champlin ran the Armstrong down upon her, with the intention of boarding her. When it was too late, Champlin discovered that she was a heavier vessel than he suspected
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Izard, George 1777-1828 (search)
Izard, George 1777-1828 Military officer; born in South Carolina in 1777; son of Ralph Izard. Having finished his education and Graves of the 11th Ohio battery-men. made a tour in Europe, he entered the United States army, in 1794, as lieutenant of artillery. He was appointed aide to General Hamilton in 1799; resigned in 1803; commissioned colonel of artillery in the spring of 1812; and promoted to brigadier-general in March, 1813. He was in command on Lake Champlain and on the Niagara frontier, in 1814, with the rank of major-general. From 1825 until his death he was governor of Arkansas Territory. Early in September, 1814, he moved towards Sackett's Harbor, under the direction of the Secretary of War, with about 4,000 troops, where he received a despatch from General Brown at Fort Erie, Sept. 10, urging him to move on to his support, as he had not more than 2,000 effective men. The first division of Izard's troops arrived at Lewiston on Oct. 5. He moved up to Black Rock
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lawrence, James 1781- (search)
tionary War. James entered the navy as a midshipman, Sept. 4, 1798, and in the spring of 1802 was promoted to lieutenant. In the schooner Enterprise, he took a distinguished part in the destruction of the frigate Philadelphia-the (q. v.), in the harbor of Tripoli. In 1810 he was promoted to master-commander; and on Feb. 24, 1813, the Hornet, of which he was commander, fought and conquered the British Peacock (see Hornet), which sank before all her prisoners could be taken out of her. In March, 1813, he was commissioned captain, and took command of the frigate Chesapeake in May. On June 1 the Chesapeake fought the frigate Shannon, and was beaten. Captain Lawrence was mortally wounded, and died June 6. His remains were conveyed to New York, where a public funeral was held. The remains were then buried in Trinity Church burying-ground, and soon after the war the corporation of New York erected an elegant marble monument over the grave. It became dilapidated in time, and in 1847 t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Meigs, Fort (search)
lt a fortification which was called Fort Meigs, in honor of the governor of Ohio. Harrison's troops there were about 1,800 in number, and were employed under the direction of Captain Wood, chief engineer of his army. The work was about 2,500 yards in circumference, the whole of which, with the exception of several small intervals left for block-houses, was to be picketed with timber 15 feet long and from 10 to 12 inches in diameter, set 3 feet in the ground. When the fort was finished, March, 1813, the general and engineer left the camp in the care of Captain Leftwich, who ceased work upon it, utterly neglected the suffering garrison, and actually burned the pickets for fire-wood. On the return of Wood, work on the fort was resumed, and pushed towards completion. Harrison had forwarded Kentucky troops from Cincinnati, and on April 12 he himself arrived at Fort Meigs. He had been informed on the way of the frequent appearance of Indian scouts near the rapids, and little skirmis
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Posey, Thomas 1750- (search)
ginia, and assisted in the defeat of Dunmore at Gwyn's Island. He joined Washington, in New Jersey, early in 1777; was transferred to Morgan's rifle regiment, and with it did valuable service on Bemis's Heights and at Saratoga. He commanded the regiment in the spring of 1778, and was finally placed in command of a battalion of Febiger's regiment, under Wayne, participating in the capture of Stony Point in July, 1779, where he was one of the first to enter the works. Colonel Posey was at the surrender of Yorktown, and was afterwards with Wayne until the evacuation of Savannah, in 1782. In February, 1793, he was made brigadier-general; settled in Kentucky; became State Senator and lieutenant-governor; was major-general of Kentucky levies in 1809; and United States Senator in 1812-13. He succeeded Harrison as governor of Indiana Territory in March, 1813; and in 1816 was made agent for Indian affairs, which post he held at the time of his death, in Shawneetown, Ill., March 19, 1818.
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