was contrived by him for the purpose of supporting the body without sensible inequality of pressure, thus preventing bed-sores.
Clark, in 1813, and MacIntosh, in 1823, improved the matter by contributing a better material.
The india-rubber cloth was long known simply as MacINTOSHntosh.
A device ed in raised work on both sides.
A will of 1427 devises several psalters in velvet bindings.
Cloth binding superseded the paper known in England as boards in 1823.
India-rubber backs were introduced in 1841.
Tortoise-shell sides in 1856.
Three fine specimens of old bookbinding are in the collection of James S. Grinnent)3233
Speculum metal (Martin's patent, August 23, 1859）10018 3/45/816
Mushet's sheathing-metal (1823）1001/8
The proportions are varied, and tin and antimony are added in some of the formulae.
See also brasses and bronzes, with the additi<
back of the cover to permit communication between the driver and passenger.
Cabs were introduced into London for hire, 1823. Fifty were first started; there are now 7,000 in that city.
2. The covered part in front of a locomotive which protect conductor, brakemen, and chance passengers.
A vehicle for hire introduced from France into England in 1823.
Shortened into cab (which see).
（Nautical.) Spun rope-yarn for seizing, worming, and similar uses.
e oils, and especially benzole, are its best solvents.
Acids and alkalies exert but little influence upon it.
Hancock, 1823, and Mackintosh, were the first who really applied this gum to its present uses.
Their original processes consisted in apding wool.
Thirty years afterward the annual value of manufactured cottons was £ 200,000. In 1860 it was £ 52,000,000. In 1823, Great Britain employed 10,000 steam-looms; the number in 1865 was 400,000, driven by steampower estimated equal to 294,0
ent changes of sunlight, cloud, and moonlight.
Transparent portions of the picture admitting light from behind brilliantly illuminated certain portions.
M. Daguerre was one of the artists of the dioramic exhibition at Regent's Park, London, in 1823.
He is justly famous in connection with his heliographic discoveries.
He died in Paris, January 10, 1851, aged 62. M. Bouton was associated with Daguerre in the invention and exhibition.
1. (Compass.) The vertical angle which a freeematical scales, it is employed to move a platform which slides freely and carries the scale to be graduated, the swing-frame for the diamondpoint being attached to some fixed part of the framing of the machine.
Donkin followed up the matter in 1823 in devising correctional methods for Maudslay's devices, to which we cannot devote room.
See Holtzapffel, pp. 651 – 655.
In 1843, Mr. Sims applied self-acting apparatus to Troughton's circular dividing-engine, and an instrument of their manu
e, float-wheel d, and pulley c.
A double or treble tree, to even or divide the work of pulling upon the respective horses.
It is swiveled to the pole, usually by a bolt or wagon hammer, and has clips on the ends to which the middle clips of the single trees are attached.
A pencil-case having a fine cylinder of graphite, which is brought forward by a screw as fast as wear renders it necessary.
Patented by Hawkins and Mordan, England, 1823.
The pencil-case has a slider actuated by a screw to project a little cylinder of black-lead as the latter wears away.
The lead is so small in diameter that it does not need cutting for the ordinary purposes of a pencil.
The projection of the lead is performed by holding the nozzle in one hand and turning round the pencil-case with the other.
A reservoir at the end of the holder contains a supply of spare leads.
A toilet-pitcher with a wide spout.
r be passed through the other receiver, the latter will exert a force of from 40 to 50 atmospheres.
The difference in the pressures, say 45 atmospheres to the square inch, will be the power on the piston (at the start).
Davy and Faraday, about 1823, succeeded in reducing several gases to a liquid state by means of great pressure and very low temperature.
Upon releasing the pressure, the gases were found to again expand to their original volume.
This discovery again turned attention to gas-and washed down with great rapidity, the gold catching, as has been observed, in the interstices between the blocks which form the floor of the sluice.
A pen with a gold nib pointed with rhodium or iridium.
In 1823, Hawkins and Mordan (English) made tortoise-shell and horn nibs with diamond and ruby points.
These were followed by plates of gold attached to the tortoise-shell nibs.
Doughty's pens were of gold with ruby points.
Wollaston's pens were of
the reign of Amosis, about 1570 B. C., 900 years before Terpander.
The strings were of catgut, and the form of the frame varied according to its purpose.
To be carried or played standing, sitting, or squatting.
One harp discovered in Egypt in 1823 had several remaining strings which responded to a touch, and awoke from a rest of 3,000 years.
a is an Egyptian harp from a painting at Thebes.
b from a painting at Dendera.
c one of the Bruce harpers, two of whom are shown in the originoped from the outer circle of the horse's foot.
This band is fastened with seven rectangular nails, driven into oval holes.
The soles of the foot and the frog are thus allowed to touch the ground.
Dudley's cast-iron horseshoe, English patent, 1823, was cast in a mold modeled from the foot of the horse, and subsequently rendered malleable in a furnace.
Besides the construction of the shoe proper, there are certain attachments thereto, such as, —
Snow-pads, which fit within the shoe and
r advantage by water, which has the property of absorbing ammoniacal gas in great volume and with singular rapidity.
This fact was first illustrated by Faraday in 1823.
He used a bent glass tube, containing at one end a portion of chloride of silver saturated with ammonia at 60° Fah. or lower, and hermetically scaled after the aper, 1818.
The diagonal arrangement of the inking-roller, to give it a relatively endwise motion to the inkingtable, is described in Applegath's English patent, 1823.
（Printing.) A table upon which ink is spread to be taken up by the inking-roller.
The combination of inking-table, trough, and hand-rolon at the same time by means of an indentation along the edge of the table acting upon a frame in which the rollers were mounted.
In Applegath's English patent, 1823, the rollers are placed diagonally across the table and receive an end motion thereby.
The reservoir of ink from which the inking-roller is
rea protected by a rod, a difference of opinion exists, and the matter cannot be considered as determined.
The opinion of Leroy, 1788, was that it protected space around equal to three times the hight of the rod. The Academy of Sciences of Paris, 1823, opined that it protected a circular space whose radius is equal to the hight of the rod. This is the general opinion, but has no sufficient data for its foundation.
It is, however, the basis of the American practice in putting up lightning-rods.ors to perfect his loom, and in 1808 received a Parliamentary grant of £ 10,000 for his great national services.
On this sum he retired to a farm in Kent, and spent his declining years in comfort, occaionally trotting out his hobbies.
He died in 1823, aged 80.
Steam was applied to his looms in 1807.
Fig. 2998 shows the working parts of a powerloom, the framing being omitted.
The warp a is wound upon the warp-beam b, and, passing over the roller c, is carried through the two healds d d
haps, the first nibs, the progenitors of a host of steel, gold, and other pens.
Hawkins and Mordan, in 1823, made nibs of horn and tortoiseshell, instead of quill.
The tortoise-shell being softened, points of ruby and diamond wer either projecting for use or inclosed for compactness in carryinging.
The ever-point pencil was patented in England in 1823 by Hawkins and Mordan.
The small cylinder of black-lead is pushed forward by a driver, so as to project through the end fluid agent of one is steam and of the other water. The principle is the same, and the turbine invented by Fourneyron, in 1823, does not differ in its principle of action from the aeolipile of Hero, 150 B. C., or the reaction water-wheel of Barker, April 4, 1785.
Steam was applied to his loom in 1807.
He received a Parliamentary grant of £ 10,000 in 1808.
He died in 1823, aged 80.
See loom; weaving.
（Nautical.) A steering-pole.
（Fabric.) A striped stuff for cov
The following announcement was published in a London periodical, dated August 1, 1802:—
Railway traveling, 1823.
The Surrey Iron Railway is now completed over the high-road through Wandsworth town.
On Wednesday, June 8, several c appear to make the slightest impression on them.
Fig. 4123 illustrates the locomotive, carriage, and track proposed in 1823 for a railway between London and Edinburgh.
The locomotive was to have a toothed-wheel gearing with corresponding teeth oorses it was almost universally deemed necessary to hitch them behind the implement, which they pushed before them.
Up to 1823 but four inventors hitched the team in front of the implement: one was in 1806; the others in 1820, 1822, 1823.
As soon as this idea did occur to the inventors, they made the horse walk alongside the swath, cut by the knives, constituting what is known as the side cut.
1799. Boyce had a vertical shaft with six rotating scythes beneath the frame of the implement.