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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 219 219 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 68 68 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 45 45 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 41 41 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 28 28 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 23 23 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 2 20 20 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 1 18 18 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 2 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 14 14 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 2 14 14 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1838 AD or search for 1838 AD in all documents.

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is not to be inferred that it is confined to one. The immense expenditure of grease has induced the use, in many or perhaps most of the airengines, of moistened air as suggested by Glazebrook 1797, Oliver Evans about the same time, and by Bennet 1838. Bickford, June 6, 1865. The air is compressed in the reservoir by an annular piston; entering at the valve D during the down stroke, and passing through the piston during the up stroke. It is moistened by passing through a body of water B batory in the United States, 1836. It has a Herschelian reflector of ten feet focus, mounted equatorially; also a transit instrument and compensation-clock. The Hudson Observatory of the Western Reserve College, Ohio, was built and furnished in 1838, having an equatorial, transit, and clock. The High School Observatory of Philadelphia was furnished in 1840. The West Point Observatory about 1841. The Tuscaloosa Observatory in 1843. The Washington Observatory about 1844. The Geor
s surrounded by a water-chamber, to prevent the heat from affecting the flexible tube. The wood to be acted upon is passed before the nozzle A, being supported on rollers attached to a suitable frame. Car′bon-light. The light produced between and upon two carbon points, between which passes a current of electricity. See electric light. Carbon-om′e-ter. An instrument to detect the presence of an excess of carbonic acid by its action upon lime-water. Car′bon-print′ing. In 1838 or 1839, Mr. Mungo Ponton first pointed out the effect of light in producing colorable changes in compounds of bichromate of potassa and organic matters. Mr. Fox Talbot appears to have been the first to appreciate the effect of light in rendering insoluble the compounds of bichromate of potash and gelatine. Poitevin, in 1855, was the first to use carbon, adopting the bichromate of gelatine as a vehicle, availing himself of its insoluble character after exposure. The process was as follows
. Various forms of electro-magnetic engines have also been invented by Wheatstone, Talbot, Hearder, Hjorth, and others. Professor Jacobi of St. Petersburg, in 1838-39, succeeded in propelling a boat upon the Neva at the rate of four miles an hour, by means of a machine on this principle. The boat was 28 feet long, about 7 fef silver in connection with a more positive metal placed in a bath of sulphate of copper became covered with copper and would stand burnishing. It was not until 1838 that Mr. Spencer gave it a practical bearing by making casts of coin and casts in intaglio from the matrices thus formed. Professor Jacobi of Dorpat, in Russia, dipped from one to the other towards the batterie. From the latter it is dipped into a box whose conducting troughs lead it to the coolers. Hoard's pan, patent 1838 (A, Fig. 1887), has a trough around to collect scum, and tubular flues passing through the boiler. The steam-pan, first introduced in Louisiana in 1829, had a s
6, 1797. The wet-meter was invented by Clegg in 1807, and improved by Crosley in 1815. The dry-meter was invented by Malam in 1820, and improved by Defries in 1838. Many improvements and variations have been added since by various parties. A (Fig. 2183) is a longitudinal and B a transverse section of the wet-meter, which ors6,039,195 persons. Receipts£506,100 Expenses£292,794 Value of exhibited articles£2,000,000 Number of exhibitors,— British7,381 Foreign6,556 13,957 In 1838, Mr. Robert Lucas Chance, of Birmingham, England, successfully introduced the manufacture of Bohemian sheet-glass into his district. Mr. James Chance perfected thof gun-cotton was made by Braconnet, in 1833, who detailed the action of nitric acid on starch, sawdust, linen, and cotton. He called it xyloidine. Pelouse, in 1838, called attention to this compound. Dumas, in 1843, again cited a mode of preparing, and made suggestions for the application. Schonbein, in 1846, brought fo
ture of sides and ends on which the sash of a hot-bed rest. Hot-blast. A blast of air heated previous to its introduction into the smelting-furnace. The process was invented by Nielson, of Glasgow, Scotland, and patented in 1828. In 1845, Budd patented in England the utilization of the heated gases from the blastfurnace for heating the blast. By means of the hot-blast, anthracite coals were used successfully in smelting iron in Wales, in 1837, and at Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, in 1838, 1839. Hot-blast Fur′nace. The temperature of the air, previous to its being thrown upon the charge in the furnace, is raised to about 600° in an outer chamber or in a series of pipes. These are variously arranged. In that illustrated (A, Fig. 2588), the air is first condensed in an exterior chamber, whence it is forced into the pipe a within the reverberatory furnace b. Branches from this pipe terminate in the tuyeres on each side of the furnace, which has a separate fireplace.
blast in 1828. Aubulot, in France, in 1811, and Budd, in England, in 1845, heated the blast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. The Calder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed. Experiments in smelting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native
se. Large timbers will require a proportionate time, according to their thickness. Some processes of similar import may be shortly stated. In Bethel's process, creosote is employed and forced under heavy pressure into the pores of the wood. (1838.) Robbins expels moisture by heat and then saturates with coal-tar, resin, or bituminous oils, at 325° Fah. (1865). Blythe treats with steam combined with hydrocarbon vapor. Burnett employs chloride of zinc in solution, under pressure. (1nc in solution, under pressure. (1838.) Boucherie used pyrolignite of iron. (1840.) Payne, sulphate of iron. (1842.) Margary, acetate or sulphate of copper. (1837.) Van der Weyde, solution of silicate of potash. Heinemann: boil wood in alkaline solution, and treat, under pressure and heat, with resin, carbolic acid, and tar. Nicholson, tar and petroleum. Behr, solution of borax. Earl, protosulphate of iron. Payen, superficial carbonization. See wood, preservation of.
ed carries 135 pounds 7 miles a day. He can transport in a wheelbarrow 150 pounds 10 miles a day. The maximum power of a strong man, exerted for 2 1/2 minutes, may be stated at 18,000 pounds raised 1 foot in a minute. — Mr. Field's Experiments, 1838. A man of ordinary strength exerts a force of 30 pounds for 10 hours a day, with a velocity of 2 1/2 feet in a second = 4,500 pounds raised 1 foot in a minute = one fifth of the work of a horse. Man-rope. (Nautical.) A rope which form mechanical finger, by which objects invisible to the naked eye are picked up on the point of a hair, separated according to kind, and arranged conveniently for observation. After the discovery of the theory of binocular vision by Wheatstone in 1838, and especially after the construction of the lenticular stereoscope by Sir David Brewster in 1852, the idea naturally occurred of applying this principle to microscopes. This was first effected by Professor J. L. Riddell of the University of Lou
. Viewed with a suitably high power these bands are seen simply as groups of fine black lines, the distances of which from center to center can readily be measured by a micrometer. For farther details with regard to Nobert's plates, the reader may consult F. Nobert in Poggendorff's Annalen, Bd. 58, 1852. The treatises of Carpenter and Harting on the Microscope, and a number of papers published in the Quarterly journal of Microscopical science, and the Monthly Microscopical journal, since 1838. Kindly furnished for this work by Colonel J. J. Woodward, M. D., United States Army. Nock. (Nautical.) The upper front corner of a 4-cornered, fore-and-aft sail; such as a spanker, a trysail. Also called the throat. Noc′to-graph. a. A writing-frame for the blind. b. A nightly account or report. The converse of the diary. c. An instrument or register which records the presence of watchmen on their beats. Noc-tur′nal; Noctur-la′bi-um. (Nautical.) An instrume
flagging, and macadam. The upper surface of the pavement was coated with a layer of tar and gravel. An English patent, 1838, describes tapering wooden blocks boiled in tar and doweled together. A subsequent English inventor aggregated his blocs of cloth diminishing in diameter toward the center and coated on both sides with a solution of india-rubber. 7,800 of 1838 Grooves around the piston filled with an alloy of zinc, tin, and regulus of antimony. 9,411 of 1842. Cork between two Hill's penny-postage scheme was adopted January 10, 1840. The number of letters mailed in England rose from 76,000,000 in 1838 to 642,000,000 in 1863. The gross returns rose from £ 2,346,000 to £ 3,870,000; the profits from £ 1,660,--000 to £ 1,790on's and Bell's steamboats had side paddle-wheels, as also the Savannah, 1819, Enterprise, 1825, Great Western and Sirius, 1838. The Great Britain, 1843, had a screw, and after this the screw became common. See paddle-wheel. The term propeller
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