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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 279 279 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 90 90 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 48 48 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 2 37 37 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 34 34 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 26 26 Browse Search
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF MEDFORD, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, IN 1630, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1855. (ed. Charles Brooks) 24 24 Browse Search
Margaret Fuller, Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli (ed. W. H. Channing) 23 23 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 22 22 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 2 22 22 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1840 AD or search for 1840 AD in all documents.

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t is open to objections. A further improvement of Messrs. Stirling was patented in England, in 1840. In this engine two strong air-tight vessels are connected with the opposite ends of a cylindeines in the world are the three engines, the Leegh- water, the Cruquius, and the Lynden, erected 1840 — 50, for the purpose of draining the Haarlem Lake. This had an area of 45,230 acres, and a maxias introduced into England; the date is not remembered, but it was referred to as a novelty about 1840. There are now over eighty patents, which appear to agree in one respect, that is, the rotatioarmament of ships and forts has undergone a very great change within the past thirty years. About 1840 the 32-pounder gun was most usually employed both on shore and shipboard, 24-pounders forming no n equatorial, transit, and clock. The High School Observatory of Philadelphia was furnished in 1840. The West Point Observatory about 1841. The Tuscaloosa Observatory in 1843. The Washingt
y of the art, spoke of the possibility of making fac-similes of oil-paintings. Storch and Kramer, of Berlin, successfully reproduced oilpaintings by this process (1840 – 1850). In making chromo-lithographs, an outline drawing is made by tracing, and this is transferred to all the stones (one for each color), required to compleed and equable rate is made to regulate the motion of an engine. Invented by Wood and improved by Siemen. Chron′o-scope. Invented by Professor Wheatstone in 1840, to measure small intervals of time. It has been applied to ascertaining the velocity of projectiles. In Pouillet's chronoscope, a galvanic current of very shorts. Cow-catcher. Cow-catch′er. An inclined frame in front of a locomotive, to throw obstructions from the track. A pilot. Patented in England by Lindo, 1840. Cow-horn forceps Cow-horn For′ceps. A dentist's instrument for extracting molars. That for the upper jaw has one hooked prong like a cow's horn, the ot
ent impulses from an electromagnet. The first known clock of this kind was invented by Wheatstone and exhibited by him in 1840. Appold, Bain, Shepherd, and others have contrived clocks on the same principle. See electro-magnetic clock. E-lec′tes of powder. It was first tried in blowing up the sunken hull of the Royal George, in 1839, by Colonel Pasley. In 1840 the plan was used in Boston Harbor by Captain Paris. In 1843, by Cubitt, for overthrowing a large section of Round-downires, requiring the deflection of two of the needles to indicate each letter. His first dial instrument was patented in 1840; modifications were, however, subsequently made in it. The transmission of messages was effected by a wheel having fifteen in the manner generally practiced until a comparatively recent period. An envelope-machine was invented as far back as 1840, but De la Rue's, 1845, appears to have been the first which achieved any notoriety. Envelope-machines, so called, gene
other, the resulting combustion giving an explosive force against the piston. Street, in 1794, proposed to use the expansive power of heated gas instead of its explosive power. Lebon's French patent of 1799 described the distillation of carbureted hydrogen from coal, and its introduction into the cylinder beneath the piston and simultaneously at another channel a proper proportion of atmospheric air. The mixed gases were then exploded by the electric spark (see also Pinkus's English patent, 1840), their dilatation furnishing the desired motive-power. The engine was self-regulating and operated two pumps, one of them designed to introduce the supply of gas, and the other that of air. Brunel's gas-engine (1825) consisted of five distinct cylindrical vessels; the two exterior vessels a and b contain the carbonic acid, reduced to the liquid form, and are called the receivers; from these it passes into two other vessels c and d, called expansion vessels. These latter have communicatio
by 14 feet high, giving about 1,000 square feet of heating surface. The pipes are disposed three in a row; the blast thus passing up and down three times, discharging into connecting chambers in the roof of the combustion chamber below. Since 1840, the blast has been gradually made hotter and hotter, and the means of economically and regularly giving the air a temperature of 1,000 or more degrees have attracted much attention. Cowper's patent is founded on the Siemens regenerative princient metals connected together by a conductor, and immersed in a solution which causes a flow of electricity from the positive to the negative metal. See galvanic battery. Hy′dro-e-lec′tric ma-chine′. (Electricity.) A machine invented in 1840 by Mr. (now Sir William) Armstrong, in which electricity is generated by the friction of steam against the sides of orifices through which it is allowed to escape under high pressure. A steam-boiler is supported on four glass legs. The steam is
ron, and propelled by six screws on the part which may, by courtesy, be called the stern. A turret amidships carries two guns, which are fired en barbette. Below the water-line the vessel is divided into a large number of water-tight compartments. I′ron, Cor′ru-ga-ted. Corrugated iron is used in many structures, — houses, sheds, cars, carriages, boats, tanks, etc. As a covering for buildings it was first used as a roof for the Eastern Counties Railway Station at the London terminus, 1840. The plan is rectangular, with three aisles 230 feet long. The middle aisle 36 1/2 feet wide, the side aisles 20 1/2 feet. The iron is No. 16 wire gage, 1/14th of an inch. The curve of the arch is at right angles to the corrugation. The sheets are riveted together in the direction of their length. The water follows the curves of corrugation to the gutters, which lead it to the posts; these are hollow, and conduct it to drains beneath the pavement. Corrugated-iron house. Corrugated<
ly dry and seasoned, and fit for use. Large timbers will require a proportionate time, according to their thickness. Some processes of similar import may be shortly stated. In Bethel's process, creosote is employed and forced under heavy pressure into the pores of the wood. (1838.) Robbins expels moisture by heat and then saturates with coal-tar, resin, or bituminous oils, at 325° Fah. (1865). Blythe treats with steam combined with hydrocarbon vapor. Burnett employs chloride of zinc in solution, under pressure. (1838.) Boucherie used pyrolignite of iron. (1840.) Payne, sulphate of iron. (1842.) Margary, acetate or sulphate of copper. (1837.) Van der Weyde, solution of silicate of potash. Heinemann: boil wood in alkaline solution, and treat, under pressure and heat, with resin, carbolic acid, and tar. Nicholson, tar and petroleum. Behr, solution of borax. Earl, protosulphate of iron. Payen, superficial carbonization. See wood, preservation of.
5.376p. Table. 100 centiares make1 are. 10 ares make1 decare. 10 decares make1 hectare. The United States, however, led the way in decimal currency. The metric system, though adopted in 1795, was not fully carried into effect until 1840. It is now employed throughout a large part of Continental Europe, and seems in a fair way to be generally adopted at some not very distant day in the United States, where it may now be legally employed at the option of the parties interested. nd plan was that of Branston, who punched the notes and cut the lines deeply in a plate and from this obtained a stereotype, from which he printed in the usual manner. The present plan of detached types was introduced by Hughes of London, about 1840. See pp. 310, 311, of Ringwalt's Encyclopedia of printing. Mu′sic-wire. a. A steel wire employed for instruments of wire. b. Wire drawn of various patterns and used in some kinds of music-printing. Mu′sic-writ′er. Several contrivan<
volution is imparted, was introduced two years later. By this, a beautiful finish is imparted to the eye. The process of hardening them in oil was introduced in 1840, water having been previously used for this purpose, which caused a large proportion of them to become crooked, requiring the services of a large number of workmenibes the electro deposition of nickel and other metals by the action of long-continued currents of low tension. (Phil. Trans., Vol. CXXVII. pp. 37 – 45.) Shore, 1840, used a solution of nitrate of nickel in one compartment of battery, and weak sulphuric acid and zinc in the other, for deposition of nickel. An alloy of nickel and tin made by melting under borax and glass was used for coating iron plates by Richardson and Braithwaite, 1840. The alloy was applied melted, as in tinning iron. Alfred Smee made an electro deposition of nickel in 1841. (Smee's Elements of Electro-Metallurgy.) Bottger, in the Journal fur Praktische Chemie, Vol XXX. p.
gtongs are suspended over a beam rigged out from a boat, being held in extended position by a spring, and brought together by the action of raising, through means of the toggle-rods. The head is sunk by a longitudinal bar to which the jaws are hinged. Oyster-tongs. O′zone-appa-ra′tus. Ozone is an allotropic condition of oxygen, also called active oxygen. It has the property of decomposing iodide of potassium with liberation of iodine. Its odor led to its discovery by Schonbein in 1840, though the odor which oxygen acquires by the passage of the electric spark was noticed by Van Marum more than half a century previously. Van Marum also observed its power of attacking mercury. It perhaps may be considered as an instable and extremely active condition of oxygen, having a density 1 1/2 times greater than ordinary oxygen. Ozone may be obtained by placing a stick of freshly scraped phosphorus in a bottle filled with air and containing sufficient water to partially submerge
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