ge Observatory was the first regularly constituted observatory in the United States, 1836.
It has a Herschelian reflector of ten feet focus, mounted equatorially; also a transit instrument and compensation-clock.
The Hudson Observatory of the Western Reserve College, Ohio, was built and furnished in 1838, having an equatorial, transit, and clock.
The High School Observatory of Philadelphia was furnished in 1840.
The West Point Observatory about 1841.
The Tuscaloosa Observatory in 1843.
The Washington Observatory about 1844.
The Georgetown, D. C., Observatory in 1844.
The Cincinnati Observatory in 1845.
The Cambridge Observatory in 1847.
The Amherst Observatory in 1847.
Dartmouth, Newark, Shelbyville, Ky., Buffalo, Michigan University, Albany, and Hamilton College, have also observatories.
A good article on the astronomical observatories of the United States may be found in Harper's Magazine, June, 1856.
See also Observations at the Washington Observat
When it is understood that the skillful Dr. Lardner occupied twenty-five pages in the Edinburgh Review in partially describing the complex action of the machine, and gave up other features as hopeless without a mass of illustrative diagrams, we shall be pardoned for not occupying space by attempting farther description.
Harper's Magazine, Vol.
XXX. pp. 34-39, gives some account of it, accompanied by a cut.
G. and E. Scheutz, Swedish engineers, constructed a working machine, 1837-43, after studying the Babbage machine; it was brought to England in 1854.
It is stated to have been bought for £ 1000 for the Dadley Observatory, Albany, N. Y.
Scheutz have since completed one for the British government, which was subsequently employed in calculating a large volume of life-tables, which the authorities at Somerset House declare never would have been undertaken had not this machine been in existence.
Cal′cu-lating and Meas′ur-ing In′struments.
See under the
he handle gave a motion of 5 inches to the tool-slide.
In the application of the screw to the graduation of mathematical scales, it is employed to move a platform which slides freely and carries the scale to be graduated, the swing-frame for the diamondpoint being attached to some fixed part of the framing of the machine.
Donkin followed up the matter in 1823 in devising correctional methods for Maudslay's devices, to which we cannot devote room.
See Holtzapffel, pp. 651 – 655.
In 1843, Mr. Sims applied self-acting apparatus to Troughton's circular dividing-engine, and an instrument of their manufacture may be seen at the Coast Survey building, Capitol Hill, Washington.
It has been somewhat modified by Mr. Wurdemann, of Washington, and is now driven by a small turbine in the stand.
（Knitting-machine.) One of the pieces interposed between jack-sinkers, which, being advanced while the latter are retracted, force the varn
attery, communicating through connecting wires with the charges of powder.
It was first tried in blowing up the sunken hull of the Royal George, in 1839, by Colonel Pasley.
In 1840 the plan was used in Boston Harbor by Captain Paris.
In 1843, by Cubitt, for overthrowing a large section of Round-down Cliff, Kent, England, in making a portion of the Southeastern Railway.
The mass dislodged weighed 400,000 tons.
A telegraph which roles for that purpose.
The flanges of the kettles are bolted steam-tight to the top plate of the steam-boiler, which has an inclination from front to rear to facilitate the transfer of the scum to a trough at the lower end.
Graham's apparatus, 1843, has a series of kettles in a rising order towards the rear, like steps, so that the grande may empty into the flambeau, that into the sirop, and the latter into the batterie, without dipping.
They are of progressively smaller size to the lower e<
rdouet, 1725; Thiout, 1740; Brachal and Gamain, 1756, 1778; Raoul, 1800; Ericsson, 1836; Robison, 1843.
See also Skilton's machine, Ure's Dictionary, Vol.
II. pp. 202-204, edition of 1860.
Sir John Robison, formerly president of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, suggested, in 1843, the making of curvilinear files by cutting flat strips of steel plate and then rolling them intoithe and Ericsson, London, England, built and exhibited a portable steam fire-engine.
In 1842 or 1843 he produced a similar engine in New York City, and it was tested, but never brought into regular fish-joint with keys instead of bolts was first used (Holley) by Barr of Newcastle, Delaware, in 1843.
In Samuel's fish-joint the bolt passes through a hole in one fish-plate and is tapped into ths.
After this we hear little of attempts to guide or propel balloons through the air until about 1843, when Mr. Monck Mason proposed the Archimedean screw as a motor, and constructed an egg-shaped ba
first notice of the discovery of gun-cotton was made by Braconnet, in 1833, who detailed the action of nitric acid on starch, sawdust, linen, and cotton.
He called it xyloidine.
Pelouse, in 1838, called attention to this compound.
Dumas, in 1843, again cited a mode of preparing, and made suggestions for the application.
Schonbein, in 1846, brought forward his plan of using nitric and sulphuric acids.
It was described by W. H. Ellet of Columbia, S. C., in 1846.
Baron Von Lenk, 1864,or this purpose, but now, instructed as to its commercial value, collecting the juice in bowls or cocoa-nut shells from incisions made in the tree.
It very soon hardens, and is ready for manufacture.
It was first made known by Dr. Montgomery, in 1843; about the same time some was brought to London by Dr. D'Almeida.
The former gentleman was rewarded by the London Society of Arts with a gold medal.
The juice consolidates in a few minutes after being drawn, and is then formed by the hand into
on of manganese is found in Reynolds's English patent, about 1800.
Mushet's patent consisted in the introduction of manganese or other highly oxidizable metals, during the process of melting the crude iron, for the purpose of detaching and removing oxidized substances.
Krupp uses spiegeleisen.
Schmit, of the Troy Bessemer works, recommends ferro-manganese in small quantities and in solid pieces, as a recarburizer.
Clay's process of making wrought-iron direct from the ore (English, 1843) consists in sifting rich ground ore, mixed with 4/10 weight of coal, into the chamber of a furnace where it is puddled and balled; after this it is shingled and rolled in the ordinary manner.
Jameson's process consists in exposing the calcined and crushed ores in a series of deoxidizing chambers, where it is exposed to the heat of the burning gases which come from the furnace below.
It is pushed from the floor of one chamber to another, and in the last chamber is exposed to hydrogen gene
in subjecting the lumber to the action of a gradually increasing temperature, in an air-tight chamber, until all or nearly all the moisture has been extracted from it; in retaining all the heat and watery vapor about the lumber until a temperature of about 170° Fah. has been attained in said air-tight chamber; and, finally, in compelling the heated moistened air to escape slowly from said chamber while the temperature is reduced therein.
Davis and Symington's lumber-dryer, English patent, 1843, acts by means of a heated blast upon lumber or wooden articles placed in a chamber through which the blast is driven.
By their process, —
Mahogany is reduced in weight24.4 per cent.
Pine is reduced in weight34.5 per cent.
Fir is reduced in weight12.5 per cent.
A heated chamber for artificially drying lumber.
Plank should never be allowed to remain undisturbed until it seasons; but should all be handled over and repiled from time to time, remo
der of a locomotive in early times.
Captain Lean is credited with a general advance which soon afterward took place.
The tabulated results for the years 1812-1843 are as follows: —
of engines.Average duty.Average duty of the best engine.Year.No.
of engines.Average duty.Average duty of the best engines.
1812212nd Coles was a proposition of Mr. T. R. Timby, of Massachusetts, who sent drawings of his proposed turret ships and batteries to the United States Patent Office in 1843.
His right to the invention was afterward recognized by the United States, and a royalty paid to him. The evidence tends to show that neither one of these engineeery efficacious in dislodging an enemy from covered positions.
During a war waged by the English against some of the Maori tribes of New Zealand, about the year 1843-44, one of the native chiefs with his forces intrenched himself in a pah or corral on the top of a hill, whence the means in the hands of the troops failed to dis
ed a solution of nitrate of nickel in one compartment of battery, and weak sulphuric acid and zinc in the other, for deposition of nickel.
An alloy of nickel and tin made by melting under borax and glass was used for coating iron plates by Richardson and Braithwaite, 1840.
The alloy was applied melted, as in tinning iron.
Alfred Smee made an electro deposition of nickel in 1841.
（Smee's Elements of Electro-Metallurgy.)
Bottger, in the Journal fur Praktische Chemie, Vol XXX. p. 267, 1843, says that among all the salts of nickel the ammonio sulphate of protoxyde of nickel is especially useful in plating brass and copper, and is much superior to cyanide nickel of potash, as recommended by Ruolz.
He proceeds at some length to state the effectiveness of the battery in producing a deposit of nickel on copper in half an hour, which would deflect the needle, and preserve the lower metal from the effect of nitric acid more perfectly than a coating of gold deposited in the same time.