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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 279 279 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 78 78 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 33 33 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 31 31 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 30 30 Browse Search
The Cambridge of eighteen hundred and ninety-six: a picture of the city and its industries fifty years after its incorporation (ed. Arthur Gilman) 29 29 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 2 28 28 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 25 25 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 20 20 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 3 18 18 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1845 AD or search for 1845 AD in all documents.

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atory of Philadelphia was furnished in 1840. The West Point Observatory about 1841. The Tuscaloosa Observatory in 1843. The Washington Observatory about 1844. The Georgetown, D. C., Observatory in 1844. The Cincinnati Observatory in 1845. The Cambridge Observatory in 1847. The Amherst Observatory in 1847. Dartmouth, Newark, Shelbyville, Ky., Buffalo, Michigan University, Albany, and Hamilton College, have also observatories. A good article on the astronomical observatories of the United States may be found in Harper's Magazine, June, 1856. See also Observations at the Washington Observatory, volume for 1845. For more full details than in the articles named, see Chambers's Astronomy; Dr. Pearson's Practical Astronomy; Loomis's Practical Astronomy; Simm's Treatise on Instruments; Heather on Mathematical Instruments. As-tro-nom′i-cal Lan′tern. One with panes or slides having perforations whose relative size and position represent stars in a given field
( Big Ben, 1858)30,324 London (Houses of Parliament)30,000 Paris (Notre Dame, 1680)28,6728.67 1/2 Montreal (1847)28,5608.68 1/4 Cologne25,000 New York (City Hall)23,0008.6 1/2 to 7 New York (Fire-alarm, 33d Street)21,612 York ( Great Peter, 1845)10 3/4 tons.8.3 Weight.Diameter.Thickness. Pounds.Ft. In.Inches. Bruges23,000 Rome (St. Peters, 1680)18,600 Oxford ( Great Tom, 1680)18,0007.16 1/8 Antwerp16,000 Exeter (1675)5 1/2 tons.6.35 Lincoln ( Great Tom, 1834)5 1/2 tons.6.86 Llts. Nitrate of potassa.Nitrate of soda. Sulphur.Carbazotate of potash. Chloride of sodium.Azotate of potash. Cyanuret of zinc.Nitrate of iron. Barilla.Nitric acid. Blast′ing-tools. Baron Liebhaber of Paris obtained a patent in France, 1845, for a mode of enlarging the lower part of a blast-hole by the application of muriatic or other acid 1 part, diluted in water 3 parts. A tube (k, Fig. 708) is inserted in the hole and externally sealed around the lower end with
ance described as having been hollowed out for the reception of the mummy may have been glass, which was known in Egypt previous to this period, or it may have been the lapis specularis, or one form of gypsum. A sarcophagus of alabaster was (in 1845) in the museum of the late Sir John Soane, Lincoln's-Inn Fields, London. This, which is very elaborately carved and decorated, was discovered by Belzoni, in Upper Egypt. It is the subject of the poem commencing, — Thou alabaster relic! wown as secured by a sidebar and shackle. The wheelcolter in Fig. 1391 is mounted as a casterwheel. It has long been employed in the fen lands of England. Colt's Pis′tol. A revolving pistol first patented by Colt in 1835, and perfected in 1845. See revolver. Colum-ba′ri-um. 1. A hole left in a wall for the insertion of the ends of a timber; named from its resemblance to a niche in a pigeon-house. 2. A niche in a mausoleum for a funereal urn was also so called. Co-lum′bi-a
sloop. See dandy. Dan′dy-roll′er. (Paper.) A sieve-roller beneath which the web of paper-pulp passes, and by which it is compacted and partially drained of its water. It may be made the means for water-marking the paper. The paper passes thence to the first pair of pressing-rollers. A dandy. Dan′iell's Bat′ter-y. The double-fluid battery invented by John Frederick Daniell, F. R. S., who received the Copley medal from the Royal Society in 1837 for this invention; he died in 1845. A jar of glass or earthenware, in which fits a plate of copper bent into cylindrical form. Within the copper is a porous cup containing the zinc. The liquids used are a saturated solution of sulphate of copper in the outer cell, and of sulphuric acid in the inner cell or porous cup. To the copper a perforated shelf or jacket is often attached for holding crystals of sulphate of copper, so that the solution may be kept at the point of saturation. See galvanic battery. Dan′i
ich passes; and farther proved that the quantities required for decomposing compound bodies were proportional to the atomic weights of Dalton. Bain's telegraph (1845) was the first in which these scientific facts were so applied as to lead to any practical result. In this, a solution of ferro-cyanide of potassium in water, tal, so that, the vibrations of either armature being checked, the pointers at either end of the line would simultaneously point to the same letter. House, about 1845, invented a telegraph which printed the letters of the Roman alphabet on a strip of paper, and was at one time extensively used in the United States. It comprisednd with the brush, in the manner generally practiced until a comparatively recent period. An envelope-machine was invented as far back as 1840, but De la Rue's, 1845, appears to have been the first which achieved any notoriety. Envelope-machines, so called, generally comprise only provisions for folding and gumming the envel
ations of the telegraph to this purpose were in 1851 in the cities of New York and Berlin, that in the latter under charge of one of the Siemens brothers. These systems simply connected a series of watch-towers, wherein watchmen were stationed, by an ordinary Morse line, so that the watchmen could telegraph to each other the locality of a fire. The present system is that of Farmer and Channing, American patent of May 19, 1857. Mr. Channing first devoted his attention to this subject in 1845, and published several articles that year attempting to show its feasibility. In 1848, Mr. M. G. Farmer invented a method of ringing bells by electricity, and in an experimental trial that year the bell in the tower of Boston City Hall was rung by an operator in New York. In 1851, Boston appropriated money to build a fire-alarm telegraph, and early in 1852 the line was completed, put in operation, and proved a success. That system is still in use, the improvements being in the mechanic
extending into each flue near its bottom. The external jacket of the furnace is filled with coalashes. A water-pan above the fire-pot is fed from an external communicating vessel. Hot-air furnace. Hot-air furnace. Hot-bed frame. The structure of sides and ends on which the sash of a hot-bed rest. Hot-blast. A blast of air heated previous to its introduction into the smelting-furnace. The process was invented by Nielson, of Glasgow, Scotland, and patented in 1828. In 1845, Budd patented in England the utilization of the heated gases from the blastfurnace for heating the blast. By means of the hot-blast, anthracite coals were used successfully in smelting iron in Wales, in 1837, and at Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, in 1838, 1839. Hot-blast Fur′nace. The temperature of the air, previous to its being thrown upon the charge in the furnace, is raised to about 600° in an outer chamber or in a series of pipes. These are variously arranged. In that illustrated
iron. Melville, 1844, obtained a patent for hollow spheres of rubber, enclosing air and separated by disks of wood or metal, the whole enclosed in iron cases. In 1845, Walker and Mills patented rubber bags filled with air and enclosed in a case for use as springs. Fuller, 1845, cylindrical rings of rubber having perforated disk1845, cylindrical rings of rubber having perforated disks between them, and a guide-rod passing through the whole. These had a tendency to swell out at the center under pressure, breaking or injuring the material. To remedy this defect, Spencer, 1852, 1853, formed the rubber rings of the shape which they would assume under pressure, and surrounded them with an annulus of iron. Thesed grooved rolls, by which the puddled bar was drawn. Neilson, of Glasgow, introduced the hot blast in 1828. Aubulot, in France, in 1811, and Budd, in England, in 1845, heated the blast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. The Calder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed.
ell was broken with a pair of pliers, and the acid ignited the composition by contact therewith. Next (about 1834) we find the Lucifers, which were coated with a mixture of sulphide of antimony and chlorate of potash made into a paste with gumwater, and ignited by drawing between the surfaces a folded piece of sand-paper. The Congreve next appeared, in which phosphorus was substituted for sulphide of antimony. In March, 1842, Reuben Partridge patented a machine for making splints. 1845, Schrotter of Vienna discovered amorphous or allotropic phosphorus, which rendered the manufacture less unhealthy, and the matches less dangerous. The process of manufacture is, according to Tomlinson, as follows: — Thick pine planks are cut into blocks by a circular saw, and these are divided into splints by a series of lancets in a reciprocating frame, which score the face of the block to a certain depth. A scytheshaped knife, cutting the whole width of the block, then swings round a
among all the salts of nickel the ammonio sulphate of protoxyde of nickel is especially useful in plating brass and copper, and is much superior to cyanide nickel of potash, as recommended by Ruolz. He proceeds at some length to state the effectiveness of the battery in producing a deposit of nickel on copper in half an hour, which would deflect the needle, and preserve the lower metal from the effect of nitric acid more perfectly than a coating of gold deposited in the same time. Parkes, 1845, melted an alloy of nickel with a flux for coating metal plates. Junot, 1852, alloyed silicum, titanium, tungsten, etc., with nickel for electro deposition. Thomas, 1854, used ferro-cyanide of potassium and nitromuriatic acid to obtain a nickel solution for the battery. In 1855 he used the same, with carbonate of ammonia and oxide of alumina. Cheatley, 1855, deposited alloys of nickel by a battery (British patent 1543, of 1855). An alloy of nickel was applied to iron plates by fr
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