in a crucible heated over a spirit-lamp.
The discovery of aluminium was at last made by Wohler in 1827, who succeeded in 1846 in obtaining minute globules or beads of this metal by heating a mixture of chloride of alumina and sodium.
Deville after to the earliest chemists.
The discovery of its use as an anaesthetic was made by Dr. Jackson or Dr. Morton of Boston, in 1846.
A contest ensued between the parties to prove priority, and was much debated in the scientific journals of the day. In athe mile, 33 1/2 miles to half a degree, — circumference of the earth, 24,000 miles. See Comptes Readus, T. XXIII. p. 851, 1846.
Another measurement of a degree of the meridian was made under the orders of the Khalif Al-Mamun in the great plain ofe principal claims in the patent of Elias Howe, Jr., which netted him so large a fortune, and which, originally granted in 1846, was made by an extension to last to 1867.
Awls vary in shape with the purposes for which they are intended, T
in the manufacture of glass, as was illustrated in the abortive attempts of the English opticians to manufacture lenses of large sizes, even under semi-official sanction.
The general relaxation of the excise system under Sir Robert Peel's Act of 1846, rendered possible the introduction into England of an improved method, for some time then past in use in France and Belgium.
The glass used upon the Exhibition Building of 1851 was made upon this plan, which is briefly as follows:—
The workmaced an elongated bullet with a cylindrical grooved body and a conical point.
This had a greased paper patch, and was expanded to fill the grooves by being driven down upon a tige in the breech of the gun. This was adopted in the French service in 1846.
Delvigne subsequently patented an elongated bullet with a recessed base which he called the cylindro-ogival.
Minie, in 1847, produced the well-known bullet c, in which the tige was dispensed with, and the bullet expanded by the explosive forc
Adams, 1844, had a poly-chromatic press by which a number of colors were had at one impression by a series of separate inking fountains.
M Kenzie, 1846; a series of sliding tympans and corresponding series of plates for the separate colors, which impressed the paper in succession, giving a varicolored result.
Wgree of strength to resist tension, while the concave side has a cellular structure to resist compression.
Cranes were worked by hydraulic pressure as early as 1846, at Newcastle, England; subsequently the lock-gates and cranes of the Albert Dock, Liverpool, and those of the Grimsby Dock, were worked by water, derived either f is split by a diamond and flatted in a furnace.
Although this plan had long been practiced in Germany and Belgium, it was not imported into England until about 1846, owing to the vexatious excise-regulations, all improvements in glass-working being hampered and well nigh prevented.
The imposition, however, was taken off in ti
aic impulse from the battery. — the brain.
The electric light was first brought into notice in 1846.
The patent of Greener and Staite of that year embraced an arrangement whereby small lumps of puhe duration and succession of sounds than the eye to read a series of marks on paper.
Bain, in 1846, patented the electro-chemical telegraph which dispensed with the relay-magnet at intermediate st Louisiana in 1829, had a serpentine coil at the bottom of a circular pan.
Stillman's pan (B), 1846, had a series of bends connecting with a tube which also formed an axis for the system which coulBaume and then finished in the vacuum-pan.
It requires no special notice.
The Duplessis plan, 1846, consists in heating the juice in pans with double bottoms, forming steam-jackets, and then finisng a dent in both hammer and anvil.
Pyroxyline, or gun-cotton, was discovered by Schoenbein in 1846.
It is prepared by immersing cotton in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid for a few minutes,
f it being derived from the cloth-shearing machine.
It is scoured, dyed, dried, and ground, sifted into grades, and dusted over the varnished surface of the paper.
2. A fibrous material for stuffing upholstery, mattresses, etc. It is made by reducing to a degree of fineness, by machinery, coarse woolen cloths, rags, tags, old stockings, etc.
Tilton and Ritson's flock-cutter.
A machine for cutting fiber to a very short staple, called flock.
In Barber's patent (1846) it consists of a cylinder with spiral knives rotating in contact with a concave having straight knives, the effect being a shear cut upon the fiber passing between the edges, which shave past each other.
See also Chase, 1862; Pitts, 1856; Marble, 1872.
The example (Fig. 2026) has a bed in which knives are arranged in parallel groups, of which one in each group is radial and the others of the group parallel therewith.
The lower cutter H has a rotary motion and a vertical adjustment.
n of nitric acid on starch, sawdust, linen, and cotton.
He called it xyloidine.
Pelouse, in 1838, called attention to this compound.
Dumas, in 1843, again cited a mode of preparing, and made suggestions for the application.
Schonbein, in 1846, brought forward his plan of using nitric and sulphuric acids.
It was described by W. H. Ellet of Columbia, S. C., in 1846.
Baron Von Lenk, 1864, used cotton skeins instead of employing the wool in masses, thus rendering the saturation more co1846.
Baron Von Lenk, 1864, used cotton skeins instead of employing the wool in masses, thus rendering the saturation more complete and the manipulation easier.
The loose cotton thread is first boiled in an alkaline solution and afterwards placed in a cylinder with perforated wire sides, making from 600 to 800 revolutions per minute, by which the alkali is expressed; it is then washed in clean water and again subjected to the action of the cylinder, after which it is thoroughly dried by exposure to air and by heating in a chamber to about 120°.
One-pound charges of the cotton thus prepared are next immersed in a
ase, the light is reflected by a concave mirror c to the smaller mirror, which is held by the observer at the posterior part of the mouth, the uvula resting upon its back.
By its means, the vocal chords of the interior of the larynx are exhibited, and have been photographed.
One constructed by Dr. Turck in 1857 was modified and improved by Dr. Czermack of Pesth, 1856, who exhibited it in action in 1862, in London.
Mr. John Avery of London is said to have constructed a similar apparatus in 1846.
Laryngotomy, or the opening of the larynx, was practiced by the ancients in quinsey.
It was recommended by the Greek and Arabian physicians, by Galen and Asclepiades decidedly.
1. (Weaving.) A thong formed of the combined ends of the cords by which a certain set of yarns are raised in the process of weaving Brussels carpet.
Each yarn (termed an end) passes through an eye (the mail), to which is attached a cord passing over a pulley above the frame of the
odion which receives the picture.
Also called Ferrotype (which see).
（Music.) A wind-instrument with a row of reeds and operated by keys.
The instrument has a bellows which formerly blew air through the reeds; but Carhart in 1846 patented the feature of drawing air through the reeds by suction bellows: he also invented machines to make, rivet, and plane the reeds; also the tube board to hold the reeds, a machine to rivet the reeds to the blocks, and one for cutting the cel the details.
In Fig. 3165, the millstones are ventilated, while running, by hinged inclined wings upon the top of the runner, in connection with inclined wings upon the periphery of the stone.
See also English patents, 10,163 of 1844, 11,084 of 1846; French patents of Cabanes, May 29, 1845, and May 26, 1846.
In Fig. 3166, the drums are made air-tight, except at the eye of the stones; the air is exhausted by fans placed in pipes connecting
is shown at B, same plate.
The Prussian piece was invented by Mr. Dreyse, who is said to have spent over thirty years in trying to construct a perfect breech-loading fire-arm.
It was introduced to some extent into the Prussian service about 1846, but was much improved afterward.
It has since been superseded in the North German army by the Mauser rifle (Fig. 3308). A shows the breech mechanism in position for loading, and B at half-cock.
The breech-piece a is perforatg engine is used thereon.
Pumping and factory engines of large size are usually condensing. A notable example to the contrary is George Shield's pair of horizontal pumping-engines at the Cincinnati Water-Works.
They were put in operation about 1846.
The escaping steam of non-condensing engines is usually made to heat the feed-water.
In locomotives it is exhausted into the chimney to increase the draft.
This was first done by Trevethick in 1802.
It was at first designed probably to pu
It was invented and patented in England by Mr. Gaine.
Figuer and Pomarede made attempts in the same direction in France, 1846.
Karchiski, in 1860, subsequently treated the paper with glycerine, to give it suppleness.
Stuart Gwynne made fractionrm a weighing-balance for letters of different grades of weight.
Holtzapffel's pen-holder for enfeebled hands (English, 1846) has a vertical post which is grasped by the hand and rests on the paper.
The pen is held by an arm jointed to the post aof Atlantis.
A little water-wheel to keep a written prayer moving.
Abbe Hue ( Travels in Tartary, 1844-46) refers to what he calls a kind of praying-mill, known to the Tartars as a chu-kor or turning-prayer. He says:---
It is plosive obtained by immersing vegetable fiber in nitric and sulphuric acids and subsequent drying.
Invented by Schonbein, 1846.
Gun-cotton dissolved in ether or chloroform forms collodion, and when this is evaporated a horny mat