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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 282 282 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 118 118 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 48 48 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 45 45 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 32 32 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 30 30 Browse Search
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 24 24 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 24 24 Browse Search
Brigadier-General Ellison Capers, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 5, South Carolina (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 20 20 Browse Search
Horace Greeley, The American Conflict: A History of the Great Rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-65: its Causes, Incidents, and Results: Intended to exhibit especially its moral and political phases with the drift and progress of American opinion respecting human slavery from 1776 to the close of the War for the Union. Volume I. 17 17 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1848 AD or search for 1848 AD in all documents.

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o the force employed in condensing the air, minus some friction, leakage, and other incidentals. This form settled down into two classes of machines: 1. Those which were locomotive in their character, as in Bompas's air-driven carriage (English patent, 1828), where air was condensed in tanks and admitted to the alternate ends of a cylinder, which had a reciprocating piston, connected in the usual manner to the crank and drive-shaft. The same device, substantially, was used by Von Rathen in 1848, at Putney, England, where he ran an airlocomotive at the rate of ten or twelve miles an hour. See compressed-air engine. 2. Those in which a body of air is condensed into a reservoir, placed at the bottom of a shaft, or in a situation where the prime motor cannot be set up. In this case the engine in the mine is run by the air from the reservoir during a lull in the force of the prime motor. This was the subject of a patent in England, to Medhurst, 1799. He condensed air to one fifteenth
o the other, and the stop-cock at c be turned so as to establish a communication between them, it will be found that an inch of mercury in one limb will balance 13 1/2 inches of water in the other, showing the relative specific gravities of the two fluids to be as 13 1/2 to one. Barometrical aeriometer. Bar-o-met′ro-graph. (Meteorology.) An instrument by which the variations of atmospheric pressure are automatically recorded on a sheet of paper. Napier's instrument, patented in 1848, is intended to mark the variations of atmospheric pressure during an entire period of 24 hours. Connected with the barometer-tube is a vertical spindle carrying a card which has on its surface a number of radial lines and concentric circles; the radial lines represent fractions of inches, and the concentric circles represent portions of time. Above the card is a lever carrying a vertical pricker, which is made to rise and fall at certain regular intervals of time, and to travel from the inn
f laying out ornamental designs for carving, frescoing, and repetitive ornamentation is very ancient. Chatto, in his Origin and history of playingcards, London, 1848, says that the earliest playing-cards which he has had an opportunity of examining were evidently stenciled, and of the date of 1440. Stenciling cards was quite a in going over it being determined, the velocity, which is the ratio of time to space, is determined also to a fraction of one two-thousandth of a second. Since 1848, the idea of recording astronomical observations by galvanic electricity has been put in successful operation by several individuals; Professor Hilgard of the coasod is connected in the usual manner with the crank and driving-shaft. An engine, similar in most material respects to the above, was made by Baron von Rathlen, in 1848, and was driven by its air motor from Putney to Wandsworth (England), at the rate of ten or twelve miles per hour. Parsey, in 1847, invented an engine of this c
sed by local magnets and armatures to actuate an apparatus stationed at any point to which the wires may be carried, giving motion to a wheel and axle, and causing it to revolve so as to indicate seconds, and the other motion-work of a clock. By this means isochronous pulsations of seconds are maintained at all the points connected with the regulator, and thus perfect uniformity is established at all the clocks of a city, capitol, or private establishment. Dr. Locke of Cincinnati, about 1848, invented the method of obtaining isochronous vibration of pendulums by electric connection. Congress awarded him a premium of $10,000 for the invention, designing to use it in astronomical researches and determining longitudes. E-lec′tro-mag-net′ic Engine. The action of a current of electricity converts a piece of soft bariron into a magnet, and the breaking of the circuit restores the iron to an inert condition. This transition — alternate excitement and prostration — has been freq
in, that in the latter under charge of one of the Siemens brothers. These systems simply connected a series of watch-towers, wherein watchmen were stationed, by an ordinary Morse line, so that the watchmen could telegraph to each other the locality of a fire. The present system is that of Farmer and Channing, American patent of May 19, 1857. Mr. Channing first devoted his attention to this subject in 1845, and published several articles that year attempting to show its feasibility. In 1848, Mr. M. G. Farmer invented a method of ringing bells by electricity, and in an experimental trial that year the bell in the tower of Boston City Hall was rung by an operator in New York. In 1851, Boston appropriated money to build a fire-alarm telegraph, and early in 1852 the line was completed, put in operation, and proved a success. That system is still in use, the improvements being in the mechanical devices for carrying it into effect. It comprised a central station, a series of
ss.Manganese.Mercury. Parke's Eng. Pat. (12,325 of 1848) for sheathing boilers, etc. No. 1953-5 2951-23-5 ssional landscape photographer was a poor one. In 1848, M. Niepce de St. Victor proposed the use of albumen1827. The Bible was printed in Glasgow by Alston, 1848, in raised Roman characters, upper case. It was comed their ink from the table. Applegath's machine, 1848, was long used upon the Times. It introduced one noer hour worked upon this machine rose from 8,000, in 1848, to 12,000, printed on one side. The Hoe type-revral line. House's printing-telegraph, patented in 1848, to date from April 18, 1846, has been extensively ueen first made by Anton Lohage, of Westphalia. In 1848, he began his trials at the Haspe Iron Works, near Hgsland's pulp-grinder. Kingsland's pulp-grinder (1848 and 1856) has a closed reservoir with serrated circu land were reclaimed, was effected between the years 1848 and 1853 by steam-pumping engines. These were three
winging backwardly. 1847. Ketchum had an endless chain cutter or belt of knives. 1847. Hussey's slotted finger, open at top; knife of triangular sections. 1848. Pease had a grainrake traveling sideways beneath the platform, with slots for the fingers. Mann the same next year. 1849. Goble and Stuart had a revolving raker of grooves is usually three. They are made very shallow, and gradually diminish in depth from the breech to the muzzle. The Swiss Federal rifle, introduced in 1848 by Colonel Wurstemburger, has eight grooves with a twist of one turn in three feet. In this the bullet is not expanded, and it has enjoyed a high reputation for ac assaulting column into the works. Roll′ing-cam press. A press operated by a roller revolving between cam-wheels. This movement was invented by Dick, about 1848. Dick's anti-friction press. In the figure, a a′ are the sectors, the lower one of which has a bearing in a groove in the lower fixed bed, and the upper in a
re. Thimonnier escaped with his life, and again set to work. The Revolution of 1848 found him with another set of machines, capable of making 200 stitches per minute in 25 days. The log-book of the Savannah was sent to the Navy Department in 1848. Captain Stevens Rogers died in New London in 1868. The Savannah was built by Criae, etc., by means of gas derived from peat or hydrogenous matters. Newton, 1848, Marcy, 1849, directed a stream of air, or of air mingled with carbonic oxide, u playing-cards were thus made. Chatto, in his History of playing-cards, London, 1848, states that the earliest cards he has noticed are of the year 1440, and were man these its curvatures are rectified. See also patents: — Anderson, Au 29, 1848.85,917.Downing, Jan. 19, 1869. 39,876.Bolton, Sept. 15, 1863.124,867.White et abridge over the Ohio was the suspension-bridge at Wheeling, erected by Ellet, in 1848; this was blown down in 1854; it had a span of 1,010 feet. The present Wheeli
e. For this science is largely indebted to Dr. Locke, of Cincinnati, by whom it was successfully practiced as far back as 1848. Cambridge Observatory, Mass., has thus been brought into direct communication with San Francisco by connecting the wire in 1841. In 1846, Mr. James Reynolds, of New York, invented a machine for covering iron wire with india-rubber, and in 1848, by the aid of this machine, covered a wire with gutta-percha, which was laid between New York and Jersey City. Telegraphs of wire coated in this way were extensively introduced into Prussia in 1847-48, and in the latter year a guttapercha covered wire was laid across the Rhine at Cologne by Dr. Siemens. The first submarine cable ever laid in the open sea was laidinders. The following plans for the recovery of the tin have been proposed:— a. Edward Schunk (English) patented, in 1848, three processes: the first involving the use of sulphide of sodium; the second, of soda, lye, and litharge; and the third
This substance is nearly as heavy as the lead, and is perfectly white, but not so brilliant. It has not the body of white-lead, but is not so easily affected in color by noxious gases, white-lead being soon discolored by sulphureted hydrogen gas. The carbonate of zinc is a good substitute. See zinc. For other processes, see English patents:— 11,521, of 1847, Charles R. Lothman. Vapors produced in the process of brewing and air are introduced into the leadchambers. 12,246, of 1848, Thomas Richardson. Finely divided metallic lead is treated with acetic acid, steam, and hot air, in trays lined with slate flags, at a temperature of 90° to 100° F. 12,724, of 1849, J. E. D. Rodgers. Lead is cast into sheets, which are doubled, and hung on frames. Troughs on the floor of the chamber are charged with malt, sugar, etc. Steam is admitted, through dilute acetic acid, in other troughs. 3,091, of 1857, Edwin Hills. Lead ore, roasted to drive off the sulphurous gases whic