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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 314 314 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 148 148 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 49 49 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 48 48 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 32 32 Browse Search
Brigadier-General Ellison Capers, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 5, South Carolina (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 24 24 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 24 24 Browse Search
Benjamin Cutter, William R. Cutter, History of the town of Arlington, Massachusetts, ormerly the second precinct in Cambridge, or District of Menotomy, afterward the town of West Cambridge. 1635-1879 with a genealogical register of the inhabitants of the precinct. 19 19 Browse Search
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 18 18 Browse Search
The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 10: The Armies and the Leaders. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller) 17 17 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1853 AD or search for 1853 AD in all documents.

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21.8 Parisian Clock Bells72.26.51.5 Birkholz Metal, United States Patent, Mar. 11, 186260.38.2. An English work of 1853 cites the addition of one to two per cent of iron to brass to give strength and sonorousness; and further states that largon the bottom. This arrangement, aided by the horns on the back of the flukes, also prevents fouling. At a trial made in 1853, under the auspices of the British Board of Admiralty, to determine the comparative general merits of various descriptionsg for: W. Marr, English, 1834. Hyatt, several patents, United States, 1869-70. 2. Lamp-wick:British patents: 2071 of 1853.145 of 1857. 2647 of 1855.1610 of 1863. Lord Cochrane,1818. 3. Absorbent in lamps:Boyd, 1869. Beschke,1866. in carbuatent, 362 of 1865. 14. In refrigerators:Hyatt, 1870. 15. In ink:Smilie, 1863. 16. For paper:English patent, 1413 of 1853. Johns, 1868. Schaeffer on Paper, an old German book, describes asbestus paper, and contains a specimen. 17. For
arently, as could be done with coal-tar benzole, and died from the effects of an explosion of the saturated air. Drake, 1853, revolved a porous material, to expose a saturated surface to a blast of air. Adams had a series of overflow pans somew and out through small holes into the second cylinder, and so on. He also introduced a regulating-float. Marchesson, in 1853, had an upper supply-vessel with a lower chamber, containing a conduit of spiral form, divided by partitions into chambersnd the eccentric set ahead. To cut off longer, reverse the operation. Allen's Cutt-off. Allen and wells's cut-off, 1853 (Fig. 1569). Upon the rock-shaft M are arranged the loose steam-toes B B, with pawls E E′ pivoted to their outer ends, whiition, however, was taken off in time for the manufacture of cylinder-glass for the World's Exposition building in London, 1853. We are not aware that it has yet been introduced into the United States. As remarked, this mode of making flatted g
fted one foot high by 100 pounds of coal. See duty. Duplex-punch. Du′plex-punch. 1. One having a counter-die mounted on an opposite jaw, as the ticket-punch. 2. One having a force derived from the rolling action of two levers on a common fulcrum, forming a toggle. Du′plex-tel′egraph. A telegraph so arranged that messages can be simultaneously transmitted in opposite directions on the same line-wire. The first telegraph of this kind was devised by Dr. Gentl of Austria, in 1853, and modified by Frieschen and Siemens-Holske in 1854; but it is only within the past few years that any duplex systems have been put into successful operation, and, up to this time, only on American lines. The system invented by Joseph B. Stearns, of Boston, based upon Gentl's plan, is represented in Fig. 1806, in which the relay or receiving instrument is composed of two pairs of electro-magnets m m acting in opposite directions upon a common armature lever A. The key is the armature o<
ed so by him from a supposed influence which he called energia, as distinct from light (visible). Enfield Ri′fle. The British infantry servicearm prior to the introduction of the breech-loading system. It was first extensively introduced in 1853, just prior to the Crimean War. It has three shallow grooves, which make one turn in 6 feet 6 inches, the length of the barrel being 3 feet 3 inches, and the diameter of the bore .577 of an inch. In construction and general appearance it very clo and an artificial arm takes a supply and applies it to the envelope in its proper place, just before the flap is folded down. As fast as the envelopes are made they are automatically ranged on an inclined plane and slide into a box. The machine (1853) made sixty a minute. M. Remond's envelope-machine feeds the blanks by means of a pneumatic apparatus known as an aspirator, consisting of a hollow tube which is thrust forward and rests on the upper blank; the air is exhausted from the tube by
elope-machine, or paper-bag or box machine, as the case may be. Some printing-presses and envelope-machines have an aspirator or pneumatic contrivance by which the upper sheet of the pile is picked off and led into the machine. Comly's patent, 1853. See also envelope-machine. See Ringwalt's Dictionary of printing, Philadelphia, 1871, pp. 224, 225. The usual mode of feeding blanks for envelopes from the pile to the folders is by a plunger with a gummed surface; this descends upon the blanlish steam fire-engine. The Cincinnati engines and system are excelled nowhere, and have been copied into the principal cities of the world. The steamer Citizens' gift, one of the earliest of the Cincinnati steam fire-en- gines, was built in 1853, and thirteen years afterward gave the following record: Time of raising steam, three minutes and forty seconds from the time the torch is applied until water is thrown from the nozzle; size of nozzle, 1 1/2 inches; distance thrown, 310 feet, meas
al was stated anagrammatically, by the transposition of the letters of the words, curbonum pulvere; which he wrote Lura nope cum ubre. This looks as though he considered it a secret; not necessarily his invention, but a dangerous compound not adapted for the use of the vulgar. Michael Schwartz, a Cordelier monk, of Goslar, in Germany, about A. D. 1320, seems to have combined the three ingredients, and has been credited with the discovery. A commemorative statue of Schwartz was erected in 1853, at Freiburg. Artillery was known in France in 1345. In 1356, the city of Nuremberg purchased gunpowder and cannon. The same year Louvain employed thirty cannon at the battle of Santfliet against the Flemings. In 1361, a fire broke out at Lubec from the careless use of gunpowder. In 1363, the Hanse towns used gunpowder in a conflict with the Danes. It is commonly stated that gunpowder was first made in England, at periods varying from 1411 to 1438; but recent research by Rev
nt places. — Book III. c. 9. He adds that it is an improbable story, but that he will not pass it by altogether. The idea certainly, so far as we are concerned, is as old as the recorder, who wrote about 2300 years ago. 2. (Printing-press) A case connected by hooks with the platen, for guiding and raising it. Hose-bridge. Hose-bridge. A bridge for carriages or streetcars to allow them to cross fire-engine hose laid in the street. One form of it was patented by Demarest in 1853. The example shown is to bridge hose which lies across a street-railway. Hose-carriage. Hose-car′riage. A reel on wheels to carry hose for fire-engine service. In the example, a fuel-box for the boiler-supply is supported on the same frame. The front wheels turn beneath the elevated perch. Hose-car′ri-er. A tongs for gripping hose in lighting up full hose when in service. Hose-carrier. Hose-coup′ling. A jointpiece or pair of interlocking connecting pieces, by whi
ssing through the whole. These had a tendency to swell out at the center under pressure, breaking or injuring the material. To remedy this defect, Spencer, 1852, 1853, formed the rubber rings of the shape which they would assume under pressure, and surrounded them with an annulus of iron. These have been used as buffer, bearing, Berlin, 1865; Heinzerling's Die Brucken in Eisen ; Fairbairn's On the application of cast and wrought iron, London, 1854; Zoreas Recueil de Fers Speciaux, Paris, 1853; and Maurer's Die Formen der Walzkunst und das Faconeisen, Stuttgart, 1865. See also angle-iron. I′ron—block. A tackle-block with an iron shell and strap. Leviathan, afterwards renamed the Great Eastern, which was built from the designs of Brunel, by Russell & Co., at Millwall, on the Thames. She was commenced in 1853, and was four years in building. The proportions and capacity are as follows: — Length between perpendicular680 feet. Length on upper deck692 feet. Breadth<
r-laid, cable-laid. 2. (Cotton-manufacture.) a. 120 yards of yarn. The yarn is wound on a reel 4 1/2 feet in circumference, 80 revolutions of which make a lay, and 7 lays make a hank of 840 yards. This is the length of a hank of any grade of cotton yarn. The yarn is rated by the number of hanks which go to make up a pound. Nos. 40 to 50 are ordinary throstle weaving; Nos. 300 to 400, ordinary mule weaving. By the mule much higher numbers have been reached. No. 700 being exhibited in 1853. See yarn; hank. The lay is also called a rap or ley. 3. (Flax-manufacture.) 300 yards of linen yarn. See Lea. 4. (Woolen-manufacture.) A quantity of wool or other fiber in a willow or carding-machine. 5. (Weaving.) The batten or lathe of a loom, by which the weft-threads are beaten up in the shed to compact them against their predecessors. See lathe, 2. Lay-cap. (Weaving.) A slat which lies on top of the reed, and which is grasped by the hand in working the lat
16 feet square (one inch to the mile) would not be readily seen. The insignificance of the elevations on the earth's crust, compared with the area of the surface, is not generally appreciated, and it is common in plotting profiles of routes as in modeling the superficies, to give the rises and elevations ten times their actual proportion. This is to render them more visible. The largest attempt at geographical modeling was by Mr. Wyld, in his globe erected in Leicester Square, London, 1851-53. (See globe.) The interior surface (for convenience of general view) was modeled to represent the chains of mountains, table-lands, river valleys and depressions. It was executed in sections, and castings therefrom were afterward associated on the interior of a vast shell, and painted. Models of towns and ancient buildings in wood, plaster, and cork have excited much attention and interest, and are common in museums. Mod′el-ing-board. A board used in loammolding to give shape to the
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