s and privateers of both from carrying prizes into the waters of the United Kingdom or its colonies.
All the other powers recognized the Confederate States to be belligerents, but closed their ports against the admission of prizes captured by either belligerent.
It is worthy of notice that the United States government (though it had previously declined) at this time notified the English and French governments that it was now willing to adhere to all the conditions of the Paris Congress of 1856, provided the clause abolishing privateers might apply to the Confederate States.
The offer, with the proviso, was honorably declined by both France and England.
In the matter of the exchange of prisoners, which became important in consequence of these retaliatory measures, and the number taken by our troops at Manassas, the people of the Northern states were the victims of incessant mortification and distress through the vacillating and cruel conduct of their government.
It based all it
to confer signal advantages on the United States.
A few words in explanation may here be necessary.
Prior to the year 1856 the principles regulating this subject were to be gathered from the writings of eminent publicists, the decisions of admirconflicts (such was the official language), the five great powers of Europe, together with Sardinia and Turkey, adopted in 1856 the following declaration of principles:
1. Privateering is and remains abolished.
2. The neutral flag covers enemited States in 1812; they also formed one of the principal motives that led to the declaration of the Congress of Paris in 1856, in the fond hope of imposing an enduring check on the very abuse of maritime power which was renewed by the United Statesis subject further.
Suffice it to say that the British government, when called upon to redeem its pledge made at Paris in 1856, and renewed to the Confederacy in 1861, replied that it could not regard the blockade of Southern ports as having been ot