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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 260 260 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 232 232 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 63 63 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 48 48 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 45 45 Browse Search
Brigadier-General Ellison Capers, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 5, South Carolina (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 30 30 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harvard Memorial Biographies 25 25 Browse Search
Hon. J. L. M. Curry , LL.D., William Robertson Garrett , A. M. , Ph.D., Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 1.1, Legal Justification of the South in secession, The South as a factor in the territorial expansion of the United States (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 22 22 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 22 22 Browse Search
Abraham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, Debates of Lincoln and Douglas: Carefully Prepared by the Reporters of Each Party at the times of their Delivery. 20 20 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1856 AD or search for 1856 AD in all documents.

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zebrook's second patent, 1801, has a refrigeratory, whose use is not, as in Randolph's (Scotland, 1856), to cool the pump wherein the air is condensed (see compressed-air engine), but is used for depr Ericsson's air-engine (1855). Ericsson patented improvements in air-engines in 1851, 1855, 1856, 1858, and 1860. The following affords an example of one of his engines. Ericsson, specificat52 Tombac (Malay, tambaga, copper)1611 Red Tombac111Lead.Nickel. Mock Silver (Toucas's Patent, 1856, England)511141 Mock Gold (Hackert's, patented June 11, 1867), cream of tartar, 8 oz; saltpetiful white frosted appearance, like that of frosted silver. F. W. Gerhard obtained a patent in 1856, in England, for an improved means of obtaining aluminium metal, and the adaptation thereof to thh chloride of zinc. It was discovered by M. Balard, of Paris, in 1844. First used by Dr. Snow in 1856. Kerosolene was derived from the distillation of coal-tar by Merrill of Boston. Its use as an
b.Blair(English),1802. c.Breck(English),1807. d.SMITH1849. e.McCOMB,June 15,1856. f.broad,1850. g.Swett,Oct. 23,1866; reissued May 7, ‘72. h.McCOMB,1850. i.Cch, it is advanced into the bore and locked before firing. (hardy, 1862; Dodge, 1856.) 2. A chambered breech-piece, revolving in a vertical plane, and presenting of very recent origin, having been first recognized in the United States army in 1856. Its utility as a weapon is very questionable. It is believed that this form o 1823. India-rubber backs were introduced in 1841. Tortoise-shell sides in 1856. Three fine specimens of old bookbinding are in the collection of James S. Grts may be consulted:— Guiteau1842.Garrison1862. Hull1855.Hull1863. Humphreys1856.Farrar1863. Heims1859.Platt1869. Pratt1862.Gilson1870. Chapin1862.Howarth1871nglish substituted a conoidal wooden plug in their Enfield-rifle bullet d. In 1856, after a series of experiments by the Ordnance Department, an elongated bullet
absorbents, and which communicate by holes. A variation of this was an Archimedean screw moved by the gas, which was enriched by the vaporized liquid. Launay, 1856, used cotton wicks saturated with oil by capillarity, and exposing a large surface to the passing gas. Veique, 1857, has a closed cylindrical chamber, with inlesion. An early arrangement of this kind is the Bencini patent, September 27, 1838. See also Martell's patent, 1825; Rowland, 1844; Waite and Sener, Old Dominion, 1856. These have lids or upper chambers to condense the steam. 3. Coffee-pots of peculiar construction, as: — Hotte, 1870; a furnace inside the coffee-pot. Mae force of the expanding air being exerted against a piston in a cylinder. An air compressing machine for the service of such an engine was built, previously to 1856, by Randolph, Eliot, & Co., of Glasgow, Scotland, for Govan Colliery, near that city, and was described in the proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Enginee
red. Purple habits were given to Gideon by the Israelites from the spoils of the kings of Midian. Achan secreted a Babylonish garment, and suffered for it. Plutarch says that when Alexander took Susa, the Greeks took from the royal treasury purple stuffs to the value of 5,000 talents (1 talent $860 × 5,000 = $4,300,000), which still retained their beauty, though they had lain there 190 years. Prussian blue was discovered by Diesbach, at Berlin, 1710; aniline, in 1826, by Unverdorben. In 1856, Perkin, experimenting with aniline, treated it with bichromate of potassa, and obtained mauve. Arsenic tried as a substitute for bichromate of potassa produced magenta; blue, green, violet, and other colors were subsequently produced. (Hat-making.) Hats (black) are dyed in a solution of sulphate of iron, verdigris, and logwood, at a temperature of 180° F. They are alternately dipped and aired, the process being repeated perhaps a dozen times. The hats are all on thin blocks, and a suit
4, 1853. 10,391J. D. GreeneJan. 3, 1854. *11,944E. H. GrahamMay 16, 1854. 12.244A. D. PerryJan. 16, 1855. 12,906H. GrossMay. 22, 1855. 14,819E. SniderMay. 6, 1856. *15,734E. H. GrahamSept. 16, 1856. 17,136G. A. BlittkowskiApr. 28, 1857. 39,270G. R. BaconJuly 21, 1863. 39,455J. S. AdamsAug. 14, 1863. 44,377J. S. AdamsSepa concave having straight knives, the effect being a shear cut upon the fiber passing between the edges, which shave past each other. See also Chase, 1862; Pitts, 1856; Marble, 1872. The example (Fig. 2026) has a bed in which knives are arranged in parallel groups, of which one in each group is radial and the others of the gro and then, when dry, molded the mass into cakes of a considerable size. The following United States patents may be consulted: — 13,0561855.44,2621864. 15,6881856.44,9401864. 26,5411859.47,2961865. 35,4721862.50,5881865. 40,7531863.51,8331866. 40,7911863.53,4311866. 40,9201863.55,3691866. 42,1631864.61,0061867. 43,112
the grate or furnace, so that the ignited jet may start the fire. English patents of 1854 and 1856 describe bellows connected with a gas-reservoir, and also a portable apparatus containing compresarke's (Eng. patent, 1844)45.5219145.5 Cutler's (Eng. patent, 1835)55163 Toucas's (Eng. patent, 1856)415111 Another authority gives:— Nickel.Zinc.Copper. Common albata3.51620 Best albata5.5 prescribed direction, a compromise between the radial and the tangential. Dagener's governor, 1856, was designed to give to the pendulum balls a motion independent of the motion of the spindle asi, Bachhoffner consumed the smoke of one fire by passing it through an upper fire. Leighton, in 1856, surrounded the sides and back of a fire-grate with a fuel-chamber, the fuel being brought forwaronnected by caps which admit of expansion. The commission appointed by the House of Commons in 1856 to examine into the best mode of heating buildings reported a fire-grate for heating barracks, h
om a cistern fixed on the plate, to which the two are attached. This is the most useful form of hygrometer. The theoretical relation between the indications of the two bulbs and the humidity of the air is rather complex and has given rise to much debate; it is usual to effect the reduction by tables which have been empirically constructed by comparison with the indications of the dew-point instrument of Daniell. The British tables for this purpose were constructed by Glaisher; edition of 1856 preferred. They are based upon a comparison of the simultaneous readings of the wet and dry bulb thermometers, and of Daniell's hygrometer, taken for a series of years in Greenwich Observatory, in Toronto, and in India. The ratio between the two readings is not equal at all degrees of temperature as marked on the dry bulb. When this temperature — the natural, it may be called — is 53° F. the dew-point is as much below the wet bulb as the latter is below 53° F., the temperature of the air. <
th which a small slit was made in the iris. This opening being above the crystalline lens, and out of the sphere of its action, the patient is obliged to use very convex glasses in order to read, as those persons do from whom the crystalline humour has been extracted in the usual manner. The Rev. W. H. Milburn gives the following account of the treatment of his eye by the famous oculist Professor Von Graefe of Berlin. The ophthalmoscope had been invented by Helmholtz five years, when, in 1856, Von Graefe, as Mr. Milburn says, banished to the night of the past the blindness fatally attached to the glaucomatous eye. He relates that the Professor advised him to do without the chloroform, saying:— There is only a slight transparent spot in the cornea into which I can cut; the merest muscular twitch, the deviation of the knife by the tenth part of a hair's-breadth, will ruin the operation; chloroform cannot hold you as steady as your will. What say you? I have confidence in y
atient should sit so that it is a little back of him and on his right side, as in Tieman's instrument (the lower figure). In this case, the light is reflected by a concave mirror c to the smaller mirror, which is held by the observer at the posterior part of the mouth, the uvula resting upon its back. By its means, the vocal chords of the interior of the larynx are exhibited, and have been photographed. One constructed by Dr. Turck in 1857 was modified and improved by Dr. Czermack of Pesth, 1856, who exhibited it in action in 1862, in London. Mr. John Avery of London is said to have constructed a similar apparatus in 1846. La-ryngo-tome. Laryngotomy, or the opening of the larynx, was practiced by the ancients in quinsey. It was recommended by the Greek and Arabian physicians, by Galen and Asclepiades decidedly. Lash. 1. (Weaving.) A thong formed of the combined ends of the cords by which a certain set of yarns are raised in the process of weaving Brussels carpet. Ea
, 1854, is a fuel-pipe connecting the bottom of the grate with a side reservoir of fuel. The poker is the lever for introducing a fresh supply. Leighton, in 1856, surrounded the sides and back of the chamber with a fuel-reservoir, from which the fuel was withdrawn by the poker. See Magazinestove. 4. (Fire-arms.) A chalkali; evaporate to dryness; crush, powder, and bottle. 4. Evaporate to one half; beat up with white of egg; simmer, skim, strain, and boil. English recipe, 1856. Fresh skimmed milk, 1 gallon; sesquicarbonate soda, 1 1/2 drams; mix, evaporate to 1/3 by steam-bath, accompanied by agitation; add powdered white sugar, 3 1/2 rrors, 8 × 6 inches; and one of 400 mirrors, 6 × 6 inches. Wood was kindled at 210 feet distance, tin melted at 160 feet. See burning-glass. Petijean's patent (1856) is for a process of silvering by the use of a compound formed of nitrate of silver, ammonia, and tartaric acid. The solution is applied to a polished glass, and
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