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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 320 320 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 206 206 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 68 68 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 46 46 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 3 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 34 34 Browse Search
Brigadier-General Ellison Capers, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 5, South Carolina (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 32 32 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 1 22 22 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harvard Memorial Biographies 21 21 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 2 20 20 Browse Search
Maj. Jed. Hotchkiss, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 3, Virginia (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 18 18 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1857 AD or search for 1857 AD in all documents.

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on an object in a microscope. See Carpenter on the Microscope, pp. 117-119, ed. 1857. Achro-mat′ic lens. Achromatic, literally colorless, lenses were first ints of aluminium. The process of manufacture was afterwards so simplified that in 1857 its price at Paris was about two dollars an ounce. It was at first manufacturedarrangement, by which it was quartered. Apple-parer. In Fig. 281, date of 1857, the threaded shaft draws the slide, bringing the paring-knife against the surfa; that of a 50-gun frigate was similar, omitting the battery of one gundeck. In 1857 a 40-gun steam frigate was armed with twenty-four 9-inch guns on the main-deck attom, respectively, discharge the water and the amalgam pulp. Bertola's mill, 1857. The arrastra, as usually constructed, and described by Phillips, consists of , United States, 1869-70. 2. Lamp-wick:British patents: 2071 of 1853.145 of 1857. 2647 of 1855.1610 of 1863. Lord Cochrane,1818. 3. Absorbent in lamps:Boyd,
e mold at the same operation; when full, the mold was opened and the bullets discharged, after which the mold was clamped shut again and the operation recommenced. These contrivances were ingenious, but were very liable to get out of order. In 1857, De Zeng invented a mold for elongated bullets, constructed very similarly to the ordinary bullet-mold on a large scale, but which was mounted on a stand and worked by means of a treadle, through which, aided by the hands of the operator on the haeral Jacobs of the East India service, have an inclosed copper tube containing the bursting-charge, which may be fulminate or common powder, and is exploded by a percussion-cap or globule on striking. In experiments made with them at Enfield in 1857, caissons were blown up at distances of 2,000 and 2,400 yards; and brick-walls much damaged at those distances by their explosion. See bullet. Bul′ling. (Blasting.) Parting a piece of loosened rock from its bed by means of exploding gunp
h, Michelette le Petite, at the same place. Bore, 15 in. i. Mallet's mortar, 1857 – 58. Bore, 36 in.; weight, 93,840 pounds. j, English wrought-iron muzzle-logh the bore. Armstrong's first gun was made in 1855, and a patent obtained in 1857. It has been extensively adopted in the British service. It is built up of lay oil by capillarity, and exposing a large surface to the passing gas. Veique, 1857, has a closed cylindrical chamber, with inlet and outlet pipes for the gas, and ht, although the liquid varied in density as evaporation proceeded. Ashcroft, 1857, had a float to govern the ingress of air, and cause it to pass through a uniforuses the metal to fill up all the parts of the mold. In an American patent of 1857, the car-wheels are revolved so that the first metal poured in is made to form tonsist of rotating beaters, rubbing surfaces, fans, etc. Newell's patents, 1857 and 1859, may be taken as a type. A steam-heated cylinder, wire-ganze cylindric
ey call in chymistry Aurum Fulminans, a grain, I think he said, of it, put into a silver spoon and fired, will give a blow like a musquett, and strike a hole through the silver spoon. — Pepys, 1663. A fulminating powder which explodes when heated to 360° may be made of niter, 3 parts; dry carbonate of potash, 2 parts; sulphur, 1 part. The following patents may be consulted by those desirous of ascertaining the ingredients of various patented fulminates: — Guthrie1834.Boldt1866. Kling1857.Rand1867. Ruschaupt et al.1862.Goldmark1867. Lipps1864.Ruschaupt1868. Stockwell1865. Fumi-ga′tor. An apparatus for applying smoke, gas, or perfume: — 1. To destroy insects or vermin in their holes, or upon clothing, trees, or plants. 2. To destroy infection or miasma in buildings, ships, clothing, or feathers. 3. To diffuse a fragrant or invigorating perfume through an apartment or ward. 4. To suffuse the lungs with a soothing or healing vapor. The fumigator involve
anum, etc. (which see). The wheel shown in the example is driven by steam or wind power, having buckets on its internal perimeter which raise water from the stream and discharge it right and left into the branches of the elevated gutter. It is intended for irrigating cotton, coffee, indigo, rice, and sugar lands, and for other purposes. See Fig. 2620. Hy′dro-ba-rom′e-ter. An instrument for determining the depth of sea-water by its pressure. In the United States Coast Survey Report, 1857, pp. 398 – 403, is an account of the sounding-apparatus of Lieutenant E. B. Hunt: Arrange a weighted india-rubber air-vessel for dragging on the bottom; connect this with a boat or surveying-vessel by an air-tight tube of small bore; let this tube open in a cistern of mercury made air-tight; and from this cistern arrange a vertical glass column, open at the top, through which the mercury can rise to any hight required by the pressure due to the depth. See also Ericsson's patent, September <
r placed on each end of a steel spring. Scott, 1852, blocks of rubber placed over the center of a steel spring. Bridges, 1857, employs wooden instead of iron surrounding rings to confine the rubber blocks, and dispenses with the central rod. Fullerpplying an air-blast in the hearth of a blast-furnace was invented by C. Shunk. Kelly patented in the United States, in 1857, a mode of decarbonizing molten crude cast-iron by running it into a cupola or vessel, separate from that in which it was maceti. The following United States patents bear upon this subject; the figures are day, month, year: — Welling4, 8, 1857.Seeley23, 6, 1868. Held4, 8, 1857.Welling5, 5, 1868. Hackert31, 5, 1864.Cradenwitz25, 5, 1869. Dupper1865.Hyatt and Bla1857.Welling5, 5, 1868. Hackert31, 5, 1864.Cradenwitz25, 5, 1869. Dupper1865.Hyatt and Blake4, 5, 1869. Wheeler14, 11, 1865.Welling20, 4, 1869. Wurtz1, 1, 1867.Welling27, 4, 1869. Hackert19, 2, 1867.Welling27, 4, 1869. Starr3, 3, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Starr and Welling9, 6, 1868.Hyatt6, 4, 1869. Hyatt14, 4, 1868.Hyatt15, 6, 1869. G
s laryngoscope. When artificial light is employed, the patient should sit so that it is a little back of him and on his right side, as in Tieman's instrument (the lower figure). In this case, the light is reflected by a concave mirror c to the smaller mirror, which is held by the observer at the posterior part of the mouth, the uvula resting upon its back. By its means, the vocal chords of the interior of the larynx are exhibited, and have been photographed. One constructed by Dr. Turck in 1857 was modified and improved by Dr. Czermack of Pesth, 1856, who exhibited it in action in 1862, in London. Mr. John Avery of London is said to have constructed a similar apparatus in 1846. La-ryngo-tome. Laryngotomy, or the opening of the larynx, was practiced by the ancients in quinsey. It was recommended by the Greek and Arabian physicians, by Galen and Asclepiades decidedly. Lash. 1. (Weaving.) A thong formed of the combined ends of the cords by which a certain set of yarns
a commutator to cause the current to flow continuously in the same direction. The coil of wire of the armature was wound transversely to its soft iron core. In 1857, Siemens constructed a magneto-electric machine, in which an elongated cylindrical armature, wound with insulated wire in the direction of its length, was made to or lines drawn upon maps to connect places of equal conditions, as follows: — For an illustration, see Blodget's Climatology of the United States, Philadelphia, 1857. Isobarometric, having equal barometric pressure. Isocheimal, having same winter temperature. Isoclinal, indicating equal magnetic dip. Isocrymal, hrom San Jose in California, and has had the benefit of energy, skill, and capital in its development. A good description of the place and the works was written in 1857, and given in Harper's Magazine, June, 1863. Changes may have since taken place. The mode of mining and breaking into pieces suitable for the furnace has nothing
he number of the signal and its meaning. Those used by war-vessels differ with each nation, and the books containing them are covered with canvas lined with sheet-lead, so that in case of capture by an enemy they may be thrown overboard and sunk. The code of signals adopted by the British Admiralty requires the use of fifty flags. For the merchant service the number of combinations required is much less. The code introduced by the late Captain Marryatt, R. N., was in general use until 1857, but is now superseded by that adopted by the British Board of Trade. This requires the use of only eighteen flags, by which 20,000 signals may be made, and numbers up to 70,000 represented. These numbers are printed in a book, and to each a word or sentence is attached. Nautilus. Nau′ti-lus. A European form of diving-bell. It requires no suspension. Water admitted through the cock a into the pipes b b flows into the exterior chambers c c, causing the apparatus to sink. The wor
ed by Rigby in England in 1854, and improved in 1857, so that by employing a number of tracers all t therein, forming a merchantable article. In 1857-59, W. E. Lockwood, having purchased the effecte fourth century, has been published only since 1857. It is in the Vatican Library at Rome. The Alt the natural oil might have a value, and about 1857 efforts were made to bring what was then known 42310505 Parke's Eng. Pat.2401160 (2,996 of 1857)4001-1.5 for sheathing Phosphorus added in weapon hardly needs description here. About 1857, those for the United States cavalry were furni wedges are set up by screws. f, Hoagland's, 1857. By turning the axial screw the conical shaft of Pottery and Porcelain, Medieval and Modern (1857); and Brogniart's Arts Ceramiques. Por′ce-layat's History of pottery and porcelain, London, 1857; Burty's Chefs-d'oeuvre of the Industrial Arts,. English patents:— 2,359of 1855. 653of 1857. 2,740of 1859. 2,249of 1860. 1,129of 1867.
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