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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bogardus, James, 1800-1874 (search)
Bogardus, James, 1800-1874 Inventor; born in Catskill, N. V., March 14, 1800: was apprenticed to a watch-maker in 1814, and became skilled as a die-sinker and engraver. His genius as an inventor was first seen when he made an eight-day, three-wheeled chronometer clock, which was awarded the highest premium at the first fair of the American Institute. In 1828 he produced the ring flier for cotton spinning; in 1831 devised an engraving machine. He also made the transfer machine for the production of banknote plates from separate dies. In 1832 he devised the first dry gas-meter, and in 1836 made it applicable to all current fluids by giving a rotary motion to the machinery. In 1839 the British government offered a prize to any one who should submit the best plan of manufacturing postage-stamps, and from 2,600 designs that of Mr. Bogardus was selected. In 1847 he built a five-story factory in New York City entirely of east-iron, which was the first of its kind in the United Sta
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bristow, Benjamin Helm, 1832- (search)
Bristow, Benjamin Helm, 1832- Statesman; born in Elkton, Ky., June 20, 1832; was graduated at Jefferson College in 1851; and admitted to the bar of Kentucky in 1853. At the outbreak of the Civil War he accepted a commission in the Union army as lieutenant-colonel of the 25th Kentucky Infantry; afterwards became colonel of the 8th Kentucky Cavalry. He served through the war with distinction, and was wounded at the battle of Shiloh. He was Secretary of the United States Treasury in 1874-76, when he resigned. He was a leading candidate for the Republican Presidential nomination in 1876.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Buchanan, Franklin, 1800-1874 (search)
Buchanan, Franklin, 1800-1874 Naval officer; born in Baltimore, Md., Sept. 17, 1800: entered the navy in 1815; became lieutenant in 1825, and master-commander in 1841. He was the first superintendent of the Naval Academy at Annapolis. Sympathizing with the Confederate movement, and believing his State would secede, he sent in his resignation. Finding that Maryland did not secede, he petitioned for restoration, but was refused, when he entered the Confederate service, and superintended( the fitting-out of the old Merrimac (rechristened the Virginia) at Norfolk. In her he fought the Monitor and was severely wounded. He afterwards blew up his vessel to save her from capture. In command of the ironclad Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, he was defeated and made prisoner. He died in Talbot county. Md., May 11, 1874. See monitor and Merrimac. Buchanan, James
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cables, Ocean (search)
onstituted what was known as the Anglo-American Cable, managed by a company of the same name. In 1868 the French Atlantic Telegraph Company was formed, and the following year it laid a line from Brest, France, to Duxbury, Mass. The fourth Atlantic telegraph cable was laid from Valentia, Ireland, to Heart's Content, Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, in the summer of 1873, and a few months later the Brazilian telegraph cable was laid from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to a bay on the coast of Portugal. In 1874 the Direct United States Cable Company was formed and laid a line from Ballenskilligs Bay, Ireland, to Rye, N. H., via Nova Scotia. The same year a sixth line across the Atlantic was laid from Ireland to Newfoundland. Another French line was laid from Brest to St. Pierre, an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in 1880. The companies owning all these lines having formed a combination and pooled their receipts, to keep up rates on the transmission of messages, a competing company was forme
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Case, Augustus Ludlow 1813- (search)
Case, Augustus Ludlow 1813- Naval officer; born in Newburg, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1813; joined the navy in 1828; served in the Gulf of Mexico during the Mexican War, and took part in the engagements of Vera Cruz, Alvarado, and Tabasco. In 1861-63 he was fleet-captain of the North Atlantic blockading squadron, and was present at the capture of Forts Clark and Hatteras. Early in 1863 he was assigned to the Iroquois, and in that year directed the blockade of New Inlet, N. C. He became rear-admiral May 24, 1872. During the Virginius trouble with Spain in 1874 he was commander of the combined North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and European fleets at Key West. He died Feb. 17, 1893.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chamberlain, Daniel Henry 1835- (search)
Chamberlain, Daniel Henry 1835- Lawyer; born in West Brookfield, Mass., June 23, 1835; graduated at Yale College in 1862, and at Harvard Law School in 1864; entered the Union army as an officer in the 5th Massachusetts Colored Cavalry; after the war settled in South Carolina, of which he was (Republican) governor in 1874-76.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chandler, Zachiariah 1813-1879 (search)
Chandler, Zachiariah 1813-1879 Legislator; born in Bedford, N. H., Dec. 10, 1813; settled in Detroit, Mich., in 1833. In 1857 he was elected United States Senator, and held the seat until 1874, when he was appointed Secretary of the Interior; and in 1879 was again elected to the Senate. He was active in the organization of the Republican party; and sent a famous letter to Governor Blair, of Michigan, on Feb. 11, 1861, in which he used the words, Without a little blood-letting this Union will not, in my estimation, be worth a rush. He died in Chicago, Ill., Nov. 1, 1879.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chase, Ann 1809-1874 (search)
Chase, Ann 1809-1874 Patriot; born in Ireland, in 1809; came to the United States in 1818; settled in New Orleans in 1832, and in Tampico, Mexico, in 1833, where she married Franklin Chase, United States consul, in 1836. During the war with Mexico she held possession of the consulate, in the absence of her husband, to protect the American records. A mob attempted to remove the American flag which floated over the consulate, but she protected it with drawn revolver, exclaiming that her flag would not be touched except over her dead body. Later, through her efforts, the city of Tampico was captured without the loss of life or treasure. She died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 24, 1874.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chautauqua system of education, (search)
Chautauqua system of education, An enterprise established in 1878 at Chautauqua, N. Y., in connection with the Chautauqua Assembly, which had been organized in 1874, by the joint efforts of Lewis Miller and the Rev. John H. Vincent, for the purpose of holding annual courses of instruction in languages, science, literature, etc., at Chautauqua, in July and August annually. The aim of the Chautauqua System is to continue the work of the assembly throughout the year in all parts of the country. Since 1878 more than 250,000 students have enrolled their names for the various courses. The purpose of the Chautauqua Circles is to promote habits of reading and study in literature, history, art, and science, without interfering with the regular routine of life. The complete course covers four years, and aims to give the college outlook on life and the world. The books for study include specified works approved by the counsellors; a membership book, with review outlines; a monthly magaz
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Child, David Lee 1794-1874 (search)
Child, David Lee 1794-1874 Abolitionist; born in West Boylston, Mass., July 8, 1794; graduated at Harvard College in 1817: was later admitted to the bar. In 1830 he was editor of the Massachusetts journal, and while holding a seat in the legislature opposed the annexation of Texas; afterwards he issued a tract on the subject entitled Naboth's Vineyard. In 1836 he published ten articles on the subject of slavery, and in the following year, while in Paris, addressed a memoir to the Societepour l'abolition d'esclavage. He also forwarded a pamphlet on the same subject to the Eclectic review in London. In 1843-44 he edited (with his wife) the Anti-slavery standard in New York. He died in Wayland, Mass., Sept. 18, 1874.
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