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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Civil service, United States colonial. (search)
on must be examined in the Indian penal code, the language of the province in which they seek appointment, the Indian Evidence Act and the Indian Contract Act, and in any two of the following: Civil procedure, Hindu and Mohammedan law, Sanscrit, Arabic, Persian, and the history of India. France is not behind England in the effort to obtain highly qualified men to take up the responsibilities of administration in Africa and Asia. In Paris the École Libre des Sciences Politiques, founded in 1874, is designed especially to prepare students for foreign diplomatic service. Its corps of teachers is recruited from the most eminent scholars in France within and without the regular faculties, and the courses embrace administrative law, political economy, finance, commercial geography, commercial law, history, and modern languages. On colonial questions alone there are six lecturers. Side by side with this school of politics is the school of modern Oriental languages, a list of whose grad
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Clem, John L. 1851- (search)
ing, with a musket in his hand, by a mounted Confederate colonel, who called out, Stop! You little Yankee devil! The boy halted and brought his musket to an order, when the colonel rode up to make him a prisoner. With a swift movement, young Clem brought his gun up and fired, killing the colonel John L. Clem. instantly. He escaped; and for this exploit on the battle-field he was made a sergeant, put on duty at headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland, and placed on the Roll of Honor. In 1871 he was appointed a second lieutenant in the 24th United States Infantry; in 1874 was promoted to first lieutenant; in 1882 to captain and assistant quartermaster; and in 1895 to major and quartermaster. In 1875 he was graduated at the Artillery School. He was long familiarly known as Johnny Clem, the drummer-boy of Chickamauga, and since his connection with the army has made himself very popular among his immediate superiors, and won and held the esteem of the authorities in Washington.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Collins, Napoleon 1814-1875 (search)
Collins, Napoleon 1814-1875 Naval officer; born in Pennsylvania, May 4, 1814; joined the navy in 1834; served in the war with Mexico; and in the Civil War was placed in command of the steam-sloop Wachusett, in 1863, when that vessel was assigned to capture privateers. On Oct. 7, 1864, he followed the Confederate steamer Florida into the harbor of Bahia, Brazil, and captured her. Later, as Brazil had complained that her neutrality had not been respected, his act was disavowed. Collins was promoted rear-admiral in 1874, and given command of the South Pacific squadron. He died in Callao, Peru, Aug. 9, 1875.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Colman, Norman J. (search)
Colman, Norman J. Agriculturalist; born near Richfield Springs, N. Y., in 1827; began the practice of law in New Albany, Ind., and the editing of an agricultural paper in St. Louis, Mo., in 1871. He was elected lieutenant-governor as a Democrat in 1874, and was appointed by President Cleveland United States Commissioner of Agriculture in 1885.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Colorado (search)
Name.Term.Remarks Appointed by William Gilpin1861-62President Lincoln John Evans1862-65President Lincoln Alexander Cummings1865-67President Johnson A. C. Hunt1867-69President Johnson Edward M. McCook1869-73President Grant Samuel H. Elbert1873-74President Grant Edward M. McCook1874-75President Grant John L. Routt1875-76President Grant State governors. Name. Term. John L. Routt 1876 to 1878 Fred. W. Pitkin1879 to 1882 James B. Grant1883 to 1886 Benj. H. Eaton 1885 to 1886 Alvah A1874-75President Grant John L. Routt1875-76President Grant State governors. Name. Term. John L. Routt 1876 to 1878 Fred. W. Pitkin1879 to 1882 James B. Grant1883 to 1886 Benj. H. Eaton 1885 to 1886 Alvah Adams 1887 to 1888 Job A. Cooper 1889 to 1890 John L. Routt1891 to 1893 Davis H. Waite 1893 to 1895 A. W. McIntyre 1895 to 1897 Alvah Adams 1897 to 1899 Charles S. Thomas 1899 to 1901 James B. Orman 1901 to 1903 United States senators. Name. No. of Congress. Term. Jerome B. Chaffee44th to 45th1876 to 1879 Henry M. Teller44th to 47th 1877 to 1883 Nathaniel P. Hill46th to 48th1879 to 1885 Thomas M. Bowen48th to 50th1883 to 1889 Henry M. Teller 49th 1885 to — Edward O. Wolcott51s
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Commerce of the United States. (search)
00 18702,775,000,000213,400,00011,910,0001,263,015,000 18803,601,000,000340,000,00018,140,0001,150,814,000 18905,600,000,000466,000,00025,160,0001,060,052,000 18985,900,000,000610,000,00037,150,0001,950,000,000 (a)Malte-Brun's estimate for 1804.(e)Levasseur's estimate for 1878. (b)Based on Balbi's estimate for 1828.(f)Royal Geographical Society estimate. (c)Based on Michelet's estimate for 1845.(g)Mulhall's estimates, except 1830, 1890, and 1898. (d)Based on Behm-Wagner estimate for 1874.(h)Saetbeer's estimates prior to 1860. To discuss the part which the various nations have had in this commerce, the relations of imports to exports, or the classes of articles exchanged between the great sections of the globe, would carry this study beyond reasonable limits. In all of the above statements, the term commerce has covered both exports and imports, and has included the exchange of merchandise between nation and nation throughout the entire world, wherever records of such com
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Copyright law. (search)
same term for unpublished books, with the privilege of a renewal for fourteen years longer. In 1831 a general copyright law was passed, granting copyright for twenty-eight years, and providing for a renewal for fourteen years. In 1856 a law was passed giving to the authors of dramatic compositions the exclusive right of publicly representing them or causing them to be represented. In 1870 all copyright statutes were repealed by a general copyright law (to which some amendments were added in 1874), permitting any citizen of the United States who shall be the author, inventor, designer, or proprietor of any book, map, chart, dramatic or musical composition, engraving, cut, print, or photograph or negative thereof, or a painting, drawing, chromo, statue or statuary, and of models and designs intended to be perfected as works of the fine arts, to secure a copyright thereof for twenty-eight years, with the privilege of a renewal for himself, his widow, or children, for fourteen years mo
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cornell, Ezra 1807-1874 (search)
Cornell, Ezra 1807-1874 Philanthropist; born at Westchester Landing, N. Y., Jan. 11, 1807, of Quaker parents; settled in Ithaca in 1828, and accumulated a large fortune in the development of the electric telegraph. In 1865 he founded Cornell University, with an original endowment of $500,000, subsequently increased by $400,000, and by his profits (more than $3,000,000) in purchasing and locating public lands for the benefit of the university. He died in Ithaca, Dec. 9, 1874.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Creswell, John Angell James 1828-1891 (search)
Creswell, John Angell James 1828-1891 Legislator; born in Port Deposit, Md., Nov. 18, 1828; graduated at Dickinson College in 1848; admitted to the bar in 1850; elected to Congress as a Republican in 1863; and to the United States Senate to fill a vacancy in 1864. He was a delegate to the Baltimore Convention in 1864; the Loyalists' Convention in Philadelphia in 1866; the Border States Convention in Baltimore in 1867; and the National Republican Convention in 1868. In 1869-74 he was Postmaster-General of the United States; and was one of the counsel for the United States before the Court of Alabama Claims Commissioners. He died in Elkton, Md., Dec. 23, 1891.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cullum, George Washington 1809-1892 (search)
Cullum, George Washington 1809-1892 Military officer; born in New York City Feb. 25, 1809; graduated at West Point in 1833, entering the engineering corps, and becoming captain in July, 1838. He was made major in August, 1861; lieutenantcolonel in March, 1863, and colonel, March, 1867, and was retired in 1874. In the volunteer service he reached the rank of brigadier-general and brevet major-general during the Civil War. He was one of the most accomplished and useful officers of engineers in the United States army, as the military works he superintended the construction of attest. From 1845 to 1848 he was instructor of practical engineering in the West Point Military Academy, during which time he spent two years in Europe. He served as aidede-camp to General Scott in 1861, and on the staff of General Halleck in 1862, accompanying him to Washington. He was an efficient member of the United States sanitary commission, and superintendent of West Point Academy from 1864 to 1866.
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