e of Pliny to that of Palladius, about 400 years. Pretty well for the Gauls.
Their record is superb.
The Gallic soap, 18 centuries back, was made from tallow and wood ashes, beechwood ashes being preferred.
Beech is a very common wood in France, as well as in England and the United States.
A soap-manufactory has been exhumed in Pompeii, the apparatus and manufactured soap in tolerable preservation.
Soap is occasionally mentioned by writers from the second century down (Athene.
A. D. 193; Aetius, fourth century); but the more cleanly Saracens, who invented the shirt, seem to have been among the first to popularize the use of soap as a detergent for clothes, and as an external cleansing application.
Soaps are divided into hard and soft; in the former, soda, and in the latter, potash, is used as the base.
A hard soap may be made with potash if a solid fat be employed, but soda soaps are always harder than potash soaps with the same fatty substance.
The proportions of alkal