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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 9 9 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
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Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Chronological Index to Dateable Monuments (search)
mus, 117; builds Nymphaea Tria, 363; restores Forum Julium, 226; terminal stones of Tiber banks, 538. 298-306Thermae of Diocletian, 527. 303Columns of Vicennalia in front of Curia, 145. 303-304Arcus Diocletiani on the Via Lata, 41, 42, 47. 306-312Reign of Maxentius: he builds Thermae on Palatine, 379, 530: Urbis Fanum, 387; dedicates base in Comitium, 136: Temple of Divus Romulus, 450; begins Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine), 76. 307Temple of Venus and Rome injured by fire and restored, 553. 311Secretarium Senatus restored, 146. 312-337Reign of Constantine: he completes Basilica, 76: Equestrian statue in Forum, 201; restores House of Vestals, 60: Circus Maximus, 117: Basin of Meta Sudans, 340: Arch of Janus Quadrifrons, 280: Porticus, 421: Aqua Virgo, 29. 312Castra Praetoria dismantled, 107. 315 (before). Thermae Constantinianae, 421, 525. 315-316Arch of Constantine,
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Constantinus Magnus or Constantine the Great or Constantine Magnus (search)
he son of Maximian, seizing the purple; and when Maximian was informed of it, he left his retirement and reassumed the diadem, which he had formerly renounced with his colleague Diocletian. The consequence of their rebellion was a war with Galerius, whose son, Severus Augustus, entered Italy with a powerful force; but he was shut up in Ravenna; and, unable to defend the town or to escape, he surrendered himself up to the besiegers, and was treacherously put to death by order of Maxentius. (A. D. 307.) Galerius chose C. Valerius Licinianus Licinius as Augustus instead of Severus, and he was forced to acknowledge the claims of Maximin likewise, who had been proclaimed Augustus by the legions under his command, which were stationed in Syria and Egypt. The Roman empire thus obeyed six masters: Galerius, Licinius, and Maximin in the East, and Maximian. Maxentius, and Constantine in the West (308). The union between the masters of the West was cemented by the marriage of Constantine, whose
obably the composer of the second also [MAMERTINUS]; the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh are all ascribed to Eumenius, with what justice is discussed elsewhere [EUMENIUS] ; the ninth is the work of Nazarius, who appears to have written the eighth likewise; the tenth belongs to a Mamertinus different from the personage mentioned above; the eleventh is the production of Drepanius, but the author of the fifth, in honour of the nuptials of Constantine with Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus (A. D. 307), is altogether unknown. Discourses of this description must for the most part be as devoid of all sincerity and truth as they are, from their very nature, destitute of all genuine feeling or passion, and hence, at best, resolve themselves into a mere cold display of artistic dexterity, where the attention of the audience is kept alive by a succession of epigrammatic points, carefully balanced antitheses, elaborate metaphors, and welltuned cadences, where the manner is everything, the ma
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Fausta, Fla'via Maximia'na the daughter of Maximianus IHerculius and Eutropia, was married in A. D. 307 to Constantine the Great, to whom she bore Constantinus, Constantius, and Constans. She acquired great influence with her husband in consequence of having saved his life by revealing the treacherous schemes of her father, who, driven to despair by his failure, soon after died at Tarsus. But although, on this occasion at least, she appeared in the light of a devoted wife, she at the same time played the part of a most cruel stepmother, for, in consequence of her jealous machinations, Constantine was induced to put his son Crispus to death. When, however, the truth was brought to light by Helena, who grieved deeply for her grandchild, Fausta was shut up in a bath heated far above the common temperature, and was thus suffocated, probably in A. D. 326. Zosimus seems inclined to throw the whole blame in both instances on Constantine, whom he accuses as the hypocritical perpetrator of a
Lici'nius Roman emperor (A. D. 307-324), whose full name was PUBLIUS FLAVIUS GALERIUS VALERIUS LICINIANUS LICINIUS, was by birth a humble Dacian peasant, the early friend and companion in arms of the emperor Galerius, by whom, with the consent of Maximianus Herculius and Diocletian, after the death of Severus [SEVERUS, FLAVIUS VALERIUS] and the disastrous issue of the Italian campaign [MAXENTIUS], he was raised at once to the rank of Augustus without passing through the inferior grade of Caesar, and was invested with the command of the Illyrian provinces at Carmentum, on the 11th of November, A. D. 307. Upon the death of his patron, in 311, he concluded a peaceful arrangement with Daza [MAXIMINUS 11.], in terms of which he acknowledged the latter as sovereign of Asia, Syria, and Egypt, while he added Greece, Macedonia, and Thrace to his own former dominions, the Hellespont, with the Bosporus, forming the common boundary of the two empires. Feeling, however, the necessity of strengthe
ommander, Maximianus, who, upon the invitation of his son, had quitted his retreat in Lucania, and had again assumed the purple, the Caesar was compelled to retreat in all haste to Ravenna, hotly pursued by the veteran. In an evil hour he was persuaded by treacherous representations to quit this almost impregnable stronghold, and to trust to the clemency of his foe, who, having once obtained possession of his person, granted him nothing save the liberty of choosing the manner of his death (A. D. 307). Galerius, enraged by these disasters, hastened, at the head of a numerous host, drawn from Illyria and the East, to chastise the usurper; but the military talents of Maximianus devised a system of defence which paralysed the energies of his opponent. The invader found himself in a desert, the whole population had quitted the open country, every town capable of resistance shut its gates, and thus, although he penetrated almost unmolested to within less than a hundred miles of the city, th
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
e, found himself in no condition to resist, and although he refused to concede a higher title than that of Caesar to Constantine, was obliged virtually to resign all claim to the sovereignty of Gaul and Britain. This mortification was followed by the more formidable series of disasters occasioned by the usurpation of Maxentius which led to the destruction of Severus, to the disgrace of Galerius himself, after a most calamitous campaign, and thus to the loss of Italy and Africa [MAXENTIUS], A. D. 307. From this time forward, however, his life passed more tranquilly, for having supplied the place of Severus by his old friend and comrade Licinius [LICINIUS], he seems to have abandoned those schemes of extravagant ambition once so eagerly cherished, and to have devoted his attention to great works of public utility, the draining of lakes and the clearing of forests, until cut off in A. D. 311, by the same terrible disease which is said to have terminated the existence of Sulla and of Hero
surname of *Pamfi/lou. [EUSEBIUS.] He was probably born at Berytus, of an honourable and wealthy family. Having received his early education in his native city, he proceeded to Alexandria, where he attended the instrnctions structions of Pierius, the head of the catechetical school. Afterwards, but at what time we are not informed, he became a presbyter under Agapius the bishop of Caesareia in Palestine. In the fifth year of the persecution under Diocletian, towards the end of the year A. D. 307, he was thrown into prison by Urbanus, the governor of Palestine, for refusing to sacrifice to the heathen deities. Eusebius attended upon him most affectionately during his imprisonment, which lasted till the l6th of February, 309, when he suffered martyrdom by the command of Firmilianus, the successor of Urbanus. The life of Pamphilus seems to have been entirely devoted to the cause of biblical literature, and of a free theology, but more especially the former: he was an ardent admirer
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Seve'rus, Fla'vius Vale'rius Roman emperor, A. D. 306-307. After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, followed by the elevation of Galerius with Constantius Chlorus to the rank of Augusti, it became necessary, in order to maintain the scheme of the empire, to appoint new Caesars [DIOCLETIANUS]. The right of nomination was conceded to Galerius, who selected two creatures of his own, devoted, as he believed, to his interests, Maximinus Daza and Severus. The latter, an obscure Illyrian advethe promises of the conqueror, the vanquished prince was conveyed as a prisoner of war to the vicinity of Rome, and detained in captivity at Tres Tabernae, on the Appian road, where, upon receiving intimation that he might choose the manner of his death, he opened his veins, and was entombed in the sepulchre of Gallienus, A. D. 307. (Panegr. Vet. i. v.; Auct. De Mort. Persec. 18, 19, 20, 25, 26 ; Victor, de Caes. 40, Epit. 40 ; Eutrop. 10.2; Excerpta Valeslan. 5-10; Zosim. ii, 8, 10.) [W.R]