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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 9 9 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 311 AD or search for 311 AD in all documents.

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Alexander who assumed the title of EMPEROR OF ROME in A. D. 311, was, according to some accounts, a Phrygian, and according to others a Pannonian. He was appointed by Maxentius governor of Africa, but discovering that Maxentius was plotting against his life, he assumed the purple, though he was of an advanced age and a timid nature. Maxentius sent some troops against him under Rufius Volusianus, who put down the insurrection without difficulty. Alexander was taken and strangled. (Zosimus, 2.12, 14; Aur. Vict. de Caes. 40, Epit. 40.) There are a few medals of Alexander. In the one annexed we find the words IMP. ALEXANDER. AUG., P. F.; the reverse represents Victory, with this inscription, VICTORIA ALEXANDRI AUG. N., and at the bottom, P. K.
Anti'ochus 3. The other was born at Sebaste in Armenia, and was put to death during the persecution under Diocletian, A. D. 303-311. He is said to have been tortured, and thrown to the wild beasts, and, when these refused to touch him, at last beheaded; it is added that milk, instead of blood, issued from his neck, upon which the executioner immediately professed himself to be a Christian, and accordingly suffered martyrdom with him. His memory is celebrated by the Greek and Romish churches on the 15th of July. (Marlyrologium Romanum ; Bzovius, Nomenclator Sanctorum Professione Medicorum; Acta Sanctorum, Jul. 15, vol. iv. p. 25; Clementis, Menologium Graecorum, vol. iii. p. 168; Fabricius, Biblioth. Graeca, vol. xiii. p. 64, ed. vet.) [W.A.G]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Anto'nius Abbas (search)
ow his mode of life increased every year. Of such persons he made two settlements, one in the mountains of eastern Egypt, and another near the town of Arsinoe, and he himself usually spent his time in one of these monasteries, if we may call them so. From the accounts of St. Athanasius in his life of Antonius, it is clear that most of the essential points of a monastic life were observed in these establishments. During the persecution of the Christians in the reign of the emperor Maximian, A. D. 311, Antonius, anxious to gain the palm of a martyr, went to Alexandria, but all his efforts and his opposition to the commands of the government were of no avail, and he was obliged to return uninjured to his solitude. As his peace began to be more and more disturbed by the number of visitors, he withdrew further east to a mountain which is called mount St. Antonius to this day; but he nevertheless frequently visited the towns of Egypt, and formed an intimate friendship with Athanasius, bish
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Constantinus Magnus or Constantine the Great or Constantine Magnus (search)
o a heavy poll-tax. He also accepted the title of Pontifex Maximus, which shews that at that time he had not the slightest intention of elevating Christianity at the expense of Paganism. The fruit of Constantine's victories was the undisputed mastership of the whole western part of the empire, with its ancient capital, Rome, which, however, had then ceased to be the ordinary residence of the emperors. At the same time, important events took place in the East. The emperor Galerius died in A. D. 311, and Licinius, having united his dominions with his own, was involved in a war with Maximin, who, after having taken Byzantium by surprise, was defeated in several battles, and died, on his flight to Egypt, at Tarsus in Cilicia, in 313. [MAXIMINUS.] Thus Licinius became sole master of the whole East, and the empire had now only two heads. In the following year, 314, a war broke out between Licinius and Constantine. At Cibalis, a town on the junction of the Sau with the Danube, in the south
He is said to have been the brother of St. Cosmas, with whose name and life his own is commonly associated, and whose joint history appears to have been as follows. They were born in Arabia: their father's name is not known, their mother's was Theodora, and both are said to have been Christians. After receiving an excellent education, they chose the medical profession, as being that in which they thought they could most benefit their fellow men; and accordingly they constantly practised it gratuitously, thus earning for themselves the title of *)Ana/rguroi, by which they are constantly distinguished. They were at last put to death with the most cruel tortures, in company with several other Christians, during the persecution by Diocletian, A. D. 303-311. Justinian, in the sixth century, built a church in their honour at Constantinople, and another in Pamphylia, in consequence of his having been (as he supposed) cured of a dangerous illness through their intercession. [COSMAS.] [W.A.G]
altogether out of character with the moderation and good taste displayed in his other compositions. The chief evidence consists in certain expressions contained in chapters 22 and 23, where the speaker represents himself as a native of Autun, and, in the language of a man advanced in years, recommends to the patronage of the sovereign his five sons, one of whom is spoken of as discharging the duties of an office in the treasury. 4. Gratiarum actio Constantino Augusto Flaviensium nomine. The city of Autun having experienced the liberality of Constantine, who in consideration of their recent misfortunes had relieved the inhabitants from a heavy load of taxation, assumed in honour of its patron the appellation of Flavia, and deputed Eumenius to convey to the prince expressions of gratitude. This address was spoken at Treves in the year A. D. 311. Assessment For information with regard to the general merits and the editions of Eumenius and the other panegyrists, see DREPANIUS. [W.R]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Joannes AEGYPTIUS (search)
r period; but afterwards acted as Anagnostes or reader in the church, supplying the want of sight by his extraordinary power of memory. He could recite correctly, as Eusebius testifies from personal observation, whole books of Scripture, whether from the prophets, the gospels, or the apostolic epistles. In the seventh year of the persecution (A. D. 31 0) he was treated with great cruelty one foot was burnt off, and fire was applied to his sightless eyeballs, for the mere purpose of torture. As he was unable to undergo the toil of the mines or the public works, he and several others (among whom was Silvanus of Gaza), whom age or infirmity had disabled from labour, were confined in a place by themselves. In the eighth year of the persecution, A. D. 311, the whole party, thirtynine in number, were decapitated in one day, by order of Maximin Daza, who then governed the Eastern provinces. (Euseb. de Martyrib. Palaestinae, sometimes subjoined to the eighth book of his Hist. Eccles. 100.13.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
himself, after a most calamitous campaign, and thus to the loss of Italy and Africa [MAXENTIUS], A. D. 307. From this time forward, however, his life passed more tranquilly, for having supplied the place of Severus by his old friend and comrade Licinius [LICINIUS], he seems to have abandoned those schemes of extravagant ambition once so eagerly cherished, and to have devoted his attention to great works of public utility, the draining of lakes and the clearing of forests, until cut off in A. D. 311, by the same terrible disease which is said to have terminated the existence of Sulla and of Herod Agrippa. Of a haughty and ungovernable temper, cruel to his enemies, ungrateful to his benefactors, a stranger to all the arts which soften the heart or refine the intellect, the character of this prince presents nothing to admire, except the valour of a fearless soldier and the skill of an accomplished general. The blackest shade upon his memory is thrown by his pitiless persecution of the
Nigrinia'nus a Roman Caesar or Augustus, known to us from medals only, and these struck after his death. They are very rare, but exist in all the three metals, bearing upon the obverse a head, either bare or radiated, with the legend DIVO NIGRINIANO; on the reverse, a funeral pyre, or an eagle, or an altar, or an eagle upon an altar, with the word CONSECRATIO. It has been conjectured that he was the son of Alexander, who assumed the purple in Africa, A. D. 311, and was soon after destroyed by Maxentius. There is not, however, a jot of evidence in favour of this hypothesis. (Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 520.) [W.R]