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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 8 8 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 1 1 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays 1 1 Browse Search
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Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, ARCUS CONSTANTINI (search)
ARCUS CONSTANTINI * erected by the senate in honour of Constantine to commemorate his victory over Maxentius in 312 A.D., as the inscription in the attic (CIL vi. 1139) records. The date of its completion is fixed to 315-316 A.D. by the mention of the decennalia in the inscriptions of the side arches; and Grossi-Gondi decides for 316 because the consulship is omitted, whereas in 315 he held it for the fourth time. It is not mentioned by any of our literary sources. It stands at the beginning of the road which traverses the valley between the Palatine and the Caelian from the Colosseum to the south-east end of the circus Maximus, and which is often (though without warrant) called via Triumphalis. The road did not, however, run through it, and indeed lay at a somewhat lower level, though not so low as to necessitate steps for foot-passengers to pass through (Mitt. 1891, 92). The archways and the space round the arch are paved with travertine. The arch is built of white marble;- it i
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, Chronological Index to Dateable Monuments (search)
itium, 136: Temple of Divus Romulus, 450; begins Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine), 76. 307Temple of Venus and Rome injured by fire and restored, 553. 311Secretarium Senatus restored, 146. 312-337Reign of Constantine: he completes Basilica, 76: Equestrian statue in Forum, 201; restores House of Vestals, 60: Circus Maximus, 117: Basin of Meta Sudans, 340: Arch of Janus Quadrifrons, 280: Porticus, 421: Aqua Virgo, 29. 312Castra Praetoria dismantled, 107. 315 (before). Thermae Constantinianae, 421, 525. 315-316Arch of Constantine, 36. 328Statio Aquarum restored, 313. 331(ca.). Basilica of Junius Bassus, 80. 341Temple of Juppiter Heliopolitanus on Janiculum destroyed, 295. 344-345Baths of Agrippa restored, 518. 352-353Equus Constantii, 201. 356Visit of Constantius: base in Comitium, 137; Pantheon, 385. 357Constantius sets up obelisk in Circus Maximus, 118, 367. 357-362Mithraeum of Tamesius, 345. 357Altar of
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
St. Alexander of Alexandria (*)Ale/candros), of ALEXANDRIA, succeeded as patriarch of that city St. Achillas, (as his predecessor, St. Peter, had predicted, Martyr. S. Petri, ap. Surium, vol. vi. p. 577,) A. D. 312. He, " the noble Champion of Apostolic Doctrine," (Theodt. Hist. Eccl. 1.2,) first laid bare the irreligion of Arius, and condemned him in his dispute with Alexander Baucalis. St. Alexander was at the Oecumenical Council of Nicaea, A. D. 325, with his deacon, St. Athanasius, and, scarcely five months after, died, April 17th, A. D. 326. St. Epiphanius (ad v. Hacres. 69.4) says he wrote some seventy circular epistles against Arius, and Socrates (H. E. 1.6), and Sozomen (H. E. 1.1), that he collected them into one volume. Two epistles remain; 1. to Alexander, bishop of Constantinople, written after the Council at Alexandria which condemned Arius, and before the other circular letters to the various bishops. (See Theodt. H. E. 1.4; Galland. Bibl. Pair. vol. iv. p. 441. ) 2. Th
ry case overtook the enemies of the faith, and to deduce from this circumstance, from the preservation of the new religion amidst all the dangers by which it was surrounded, and all the attacks by which it was assailed, and from its final triumph over its foes, an irresistible argument in favour of its heavenly origin. The work appears from internal evidence to have been composed after the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, and before his quarrel with Licinius, that is to say, between A. D. 312 and 315. The text is corrupt and mutilated, and the statements which it contains must be received with a certain degree of caution in consequence of the declamatory tone in which they are delivered, and the high colouring and trimming employed throughout to suit the particular design proposed. But notwithstanding these drawbacks, the treatise is extremely valuable on account of the light which it sheds on many obscure passages of ecclesiastical and civil history, and is peculiarly famous a
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Constanti'nus Ii. Fla'vius Clau'dius surnamed the Younger, Roman emperor, A. D. 337-340, the second son of Constantine the Great, and the first whom he had by his second wife, Fausta, was born at Arelatum, now Aries, in Gaul, on the 7th of August, A. D. 312. As early as A. D. 316, he was created Caesar, together with nis elder brother, Crispus, and the younger Licinius, and he held the consulship several times. In commemoration of the fifth anniversary of his Caesarship, in 321, the orator Nazarius delivered a panegyric (Panegyr. Veter. ix.), which, however, is of little importance. In 335 he was entrusted with the administration of Gaul, Britain, and Spain. After the death of his father, 337, he received in the division of the empire between the three sons of the Great Constantine and his nephews, Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, the same provinces which he had governed under his father, and a part of Africa. Being the eldest surviving son of Constantine, he received some exterior marks
Dona'tus was bishop of Casa Nigra, in Numidia, in the early part of the fourth century (A. D. 312), and from him, together with another prelate of the same name, the successor of Majorinus in the disputed election to the see of Carthage, the Donatists derived their appellation. This was the first important schism which distracted the Christian church; and, although in a great measure confined within the limits of Africa, proved, for three centuries, the source of great confusion, scandal, and bloodshed. The circumstances which gave rise to the division, and the first steps in the dispute, are given in another article. [CAECILIANUS.] Condemned, punished, but eventually tolerated by Constantine, fiercely persecuted by Constans, and favoured by Julian, the followers of this sect appear to have attained to their highest point of prosperity at the commencement of the fifth century, about which period they were ruled by four hundred bishops, and were little inferior in numbers to the Ca
s a public pleader, abandoned his profession altogether, devoting himself entirely to literary composition. There can be little doubt that at this period he became a Christian; and his change of religion may in no small degree have proved the cause of his poverty; for we can scarcely suppose that he would have been left without support by the emperor, had he not in some way forfeited the patronage of the court. We know nothing farther of his career until we find him summoned to Gaul, about A. D. 312-318, when now an old man, to superintend the education of Crispus, son of Constantine, and it is believed that he died at Treves some ten or twelve years afterwards (A. D. 325-330). Works I. Divinarum Institutionum Libri VII. Among the writings of Lactantius we must assign the first place to Divinarum Institutionum Libri VII., a sort of introduction to Christianity, intended to supersede the less perfect treatises of Minucius Felix, Tertullian, and Cyprian. It is partly polemical, sin
these statements: if he was martyred under Maximian we must place his apprehension at least a year earlier than the date just given. He was conveyed by land across Asia Minor to Nicomedeia in Bithynia, where, after suffering the greatest tortures, which could only extort from him the answer, "I am a Christian" (Chrysost. Homilia in S. Lucianum, Opera, vol. i. ed. Morel., vol. v. ed. Savil., vol. ii. ed. Benedict), he was remanded to prison. He died the day after the feast of the Epiphany, A. D. 312, most probably from the effects of the tortures already inflicted, and especially by starvation, having been fourteen days without food, for he would not taste of that which was placed before him, as it had been offered to idols. His body was cast into the sea, and having been washed ashore near the decayed town, or the ruins of Drepanum, was buried there. Constantine the Great afterwards rebuilt the town in honour of the holy martyr, and gave to it, from his mother, by whom he was probabl
Maxe'ntius Roman emperor A. D. 306-312. M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentiis, the son of Maximianus Herculius and Eutropia, received in marriage the daughter of Galerius; but in consequence, it would seem, of his indolent and dissolute habits, was altogether passed over in the division of the empire which followed the abdication of his father and Diocletian in A. D. 305. A strong feeling of disaffection towards the existing government prevailed at this time in Rome, arising from the pressure of increased taxation upon the nobles and wealthier classes, from the discontent of the praetorians who had been recently deprived of all their exclusive privileges, and from the indignation which pervaded the whole community, in consequence of the degradation of the ancient metropolis by the selection of Nicomedeia and Milan as the residences of the Augusti. It proved no difficult task for the neglected prince to turn this angry spirit to his own advantage, and to place himself at the head of the part
t as an enemy of the gods. The incident was afterwards recorded as a prognostic of his subsequent conversion and saintly eminlence. At the age of twenty he was drawn for military service in one of the civil wars which followed the death of Constantias Chlorus, in A. D. 306. The author of the Vita Pachumii says that he was levied for the service of Constantine the Great, in one of his struggles for the empire. Tillemont thinks that the war referred to was Constantine's war with Maxentius in A. D. 312, but supposes that Pachomius was drawn to serve in the army of Maximin II., in his nearly contemporary struggle against Licinius, as it is difficult to conceive that Constantine should be allowed to raise troops by conscription in Egypt, then governed by his jealous partner in the empire, Maximin. A similar difficulty applies to all Constantine's civil contests, until after the final overthrow of Licinius in A. D. 323, and the only civil war of Constantine after that was against Calocerus
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