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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 8 8 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 315 AD or search for 315 AD in all documents.

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Aphtho'nius (*)Afqo/nios), of Antioch, a Greek rhetorician who lived about A. D. 315, but of whose life nothing is known. Aphthonius is the author of an elementary introduction to the study of rhetoric, and of a number of fables in the style of those of Aesop. Works Progrumnasmata (progumna/smata) The introduction to the study of rhetoric, which bears the title Progymnasmata (progumna/smata), if considered from a right point of view, is of great interest, inasmuch as it shews us the method followed by the ancients in the instruction of boys, before they were sent to the regular schools of the rhetoricians. The book consists of rules and exercises. Previous to the time of Aphthonius the progymnasmata of Hermogenes were commonly used in schools; Aphthonius found it insufficient, and upon its basis he constructed his new work, which contained fourteen progymnasmata, while that of his predecessor contained only twelve. Soon after its appearance the work of Aphthonius superseded
Cyrillus (*Ku/rillos), ST., bishop of JERUSALEM, was probably born at Jerusalem, A. D. 315. He was ordained deacon by Macarius in the church of his native place, about 334 or 335; and, by Maximus, who succeeded Macarius, he was elected presbyter, 345. When Maximus died, he was chosen to fill the episcopal chair, 351, in the reign of Constantius. It was about the commencement of his episcopate, on the 7th of May, 351, about 9 o'clock, a. m., that a great luminous cross, exceeding in brightness the splendour of the sun, appeared for several hours over mount Golgotha, and extended as far as the mount of Olives. His letter to Constantius, which is preserved, gives a full account of this phenomenon. Soon after, he became involved in disputes with Acacius, the Arian bishop of Caesareia, which embittered the greater part of his subsequent life. The controversy between them arose about the rights of their respective sees; but mutual recriminations concerning the faith soon followed. Acacius
Hime'rius (*(Ime/rios). 1. A celebrated Greek sophist of Prusa in Bithynia, where his father Ameinias distinguished himself as a rhetorician. (Suid. s. n. *(Ime/rios.) According to the most correct calculation, the life of Himerius belongs to the period from A. D. 315 to 386. He appears to have received his first education and instruction in rhetoric in his father's house, and he then went to Athens, which was still the principal seat of intellectual culture, to complete his studies. It is not improbable that he there was a pupil of Proaeresius, whose rival he afterwards became. (Eunap. Proaeres. p. 110.) Afterwards he travelled, according to the custom of the sophists of the time, in various parts of the East: he thus visited Constantinople, Nicomedeia, Lacedaemon, Thessalonica, Philippi, and other places, and in some of them he stayed for some time, and delivered his show speeches. At length, however, he returned to Athens, and settled there. He now began his career as a teacher
ften substituted for Coelius, are both omitted by Hieronymus, and also in many MSS., while the two latter are frequently presented in an inverted order; moreover, we have no means of deciding whether Firmianus is a family or a local designation; and sone critics, absurdly enough perhaps, have imagined that Luctantius is a mere epithet, indicating the milk-like softness and sweetness which characterise the style of this author. Since he is spoken of as having been far advanced in life about A. D. 315, he must have been born not later than the middle of the third century, probably in Italy, possibly at Firmium, on the Adriatic, and certainly studied in Africa, where he became the pupil of Arnobius, who taught rhetoric at Sicca. His fame, which surpassed even that of his master, became so widely extended, that about A. D. 301 he was invited by Diocletian to settle at Nicomedeia, and there to practise his art. The teacher of Latin eloquence, however, found so little encouragement in a cit
little likely that two such spirits could long be firmly united by such a tie, or that either would calmly brook the existence of an equal. Accordingly, scarce a year elapsed before preparations commenced for the grand contest, whose object was to unite once mote the whole civilised world under a single ruler. The leading events are detailed elsewhere [CONSTANTINUS, p. 834], and therefore it will suffice briefly to state here that there were two distinct wars; in the first, which broke out A. D. 315, Licinius was compelled by the decisive defeats sustained at Cibalis in Pannonia, and in the plain of Mardia in Thrace, to submit and to cede to the victor Greece, Macedonia, and the whole lower valley of the Danube, with the exception of a part of Moesia. The peace which followed lasted for about eight years, when hostilities were renewed, but the precise circumstances which led to this fresh collision are as obscure as the causes which produced the first rupture. The great battle of Hadr
Lici'nius whose full name was FLAVIUS VALERIUS LICINIANUS LICINIUS, was a son of the emperor Licinius and Constantia [CONSTANTIA ; THEODORA], and was born A. D. 315. On the first of March 317, when not yet twenty months old, he was proclaimed Caesar along with his cousins Crispus and Constantinus, and in 319 was the colleague in the consulship of his uncle Constantine the Great. But the poor boy was stripped of all his honours upon the downfal of his father in 323, and, according to Eutropius, whose account is corroborated by St. Jerome, was put to death in 323, at the same time with the ill-fated Crispus [CRISPUS]. It appears from medals that he enjoyed the haughty titles of Jovius and Dominus in common with his father; but although coins have been described on which he appears with the epithet Augustus we have no reason to believe that he had any formal claim to this designation, which was probably annexed to his name by moneyers in ignorance or flattery. (Aurel. Vict. de Caes. 41,
the fifth year of the Caesars, Crispus and Constantine, which commenced on the 1st of March A. D. 321 (cc. 1, 2). It is chiefly occupied with the praises of Constantine, the father, who is proposed as the bright exemplar of every virtue to his sons. The circumstance that the emperor was not present (100.3, comp. 100.36), renders the grossness of the flattery somewhat less odious. With regard to the author we find two notices in the version of the Eusebian Chronicle by Jerome, the one under A. D. 315, "Nazarius insignis rhetor habetur ;" the other under A. D. 337, "Nazarii rhetoris filia in eloquentia patri coaequatur," both of which we may fairly conclude refer to the author of this oration. Ausonius also notices incidentally an "illustrious" rhetorician, Nazarius, who may be the same person. (Prof. Burdig. xiv.) The eighth piece in the above collection, styled Incerti Panegyricus Constantino Augusto dictus, from the resemblance in style as well as from an expression in the ninth (1
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
n disguise to the court of Licinius, to whose care Valeria had been consigned by her husband with his dying breath; but far from obtaining at Nicomedia the protection and honour which they anticipated, they found themselves, after witnessing the murder of Candidianus and of Severianus, compelled to provide for their safety by a precipitate flight; and having wandered for many months over various provinces in a humble disguise, were at length discovered at Thessalonica, probably in the year A. D. 315, where they were both beheaded and their bodies cast into the sea. It has been conjectured that Valeria and Prisca must at one period have betrayed some favour for Christianity, for we are told that they were the first persons whom Diocletian required to offer sacrifice to the pagan deities when he commenced his persecution; and Tillemont seems to regard all their subsequent sufferings as a temporal punishment for their weak compliance with the commands of the emperor. Our chief authorit