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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 11 11 Browse Search
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asius in his epitome exaggerated the statements of Arius; but we must remember that Arius in his letters was always prudent and moderate, to avoid giving offence, by not shewing how far his theory might be carried. On the whole, the controversy between Arius and Alexander presents no features of noble generosity or impartiality; each is ambitious and obstinate. Arius was as zealous in endeavouring to acquire new followers as Alexander was fierce and stubborn in his persecution. At last, in A. D. 323, Eusebius and the other bishops who were in favour of Arianism, assembled in council in Bithynia, and issued a circular to all the bishops, requesting them to continue their ecclesiastical communion with Arius. and to use their influence with Alexander on his behalf. But neither this step nor the permission granted by several bishops to Arius to resume his functions, as presbyter, so far as it could be done without encroachment upon the rights of Alexander, was calculated to restore peace;
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
-grandfather [CRISPUS], the brother of Claudius Gothicus. Having been educated, as we are told by St. Jerome, under Lactantius, he was nominated Caesar on the 1st of March, A. D. 317, along with his brother Constantinus and the younger Liciniusand was invested with the consulship the year following. Entering forthwith upon his military career, he distinguished himself in a campaign against the Franks, and soon after, in the war with Licinius, gained a great naval victory in the Hellespont, A. D. 323. But unhappily the glory of these exploits excited the bitter jealousy of his step-mother Fausta, at whose instigation he was put to death by his father in the year A. D. 326. [CONSTANTINUS, p. 835.] (Euseb. Chron. ad ann. 317; Sozomen. Hist. Eccl. 1.5; Eckhel, vol. viii. p. 100.) A great number of coins, especially in small brass, are extant bearing the name and effigy of this youth, commonly with the titles Caesar and Princeps Juventutis annexed; on the reverse of one we read the words
ague, but really as their superior, having led to conspiracies on the part of the praetorian soldiers against Ulpian, Flavian and Chrestus were deposed and executed, and Ulpian made sole praefect. The year of their death is not ascertained, but it was not long before that of Ulpian himself, which took place at latest A. D. 228. (D. C. 80.2; Zosim. 1.11; Zonar. 12.15.) Flavia'nus 3. Ulpius Flavianus, consular of the provinces of Aemilia and Liguria, in Italy, under Constantine the Great, A. D. 323. (Cod. Theodos. 11. tit. 16. s. 2; Gothofred. Prosop. Cod. Theod.) Flavia'nus 4. Proconsul of Africa, apparently under Constantius, son of Constantine the Great, A. D. 357-61. It is probable that this is the proconsul Flavian, to whole some of the rhetorical exercises of the sophist Himerius are addressed; though Fabricius supposes the Flavian of Himerius to be No. 7. (Cod. Theod. 8. tit. 5. s. 10, 11. tit. 36. s. 14, 15. tit. 1. s. 1; Gothofred. Prosop. Cod. Theod.; Himerius, ap. Phot.
Flavia'nus 3. Ulpius Flavianus, consular of the provinces of Aemilia and Liguria, in Italy, under Constantine the Great, A. D. 323. (Cod. Theodos. 11. tit. 16. s. 2; Gothofred. Prosop. Cod. Theod.
Helpi'dius or ELPI'DIUS. 1. A person of this name appears, from the Codex Justinianeus (8. tit. 10.6), to have performed the duties (agens vicem) of praefectus praetorio under Constantine the Great, in A. D. 321. A law of the same emperor, dated in the same year from Caralis (now Cagliari in Sardinia), is addressed to Helpidius (Cod. Theod. 2. tit. 8.1), but without his official designation. A constitution of the same emperor, dated from Sirmium, A. D. 323, and a law dated A. D. 324 (Cod. Theod. 13. tit. 5.4), containing some regulations for the portus or harbour of Rome, at the mouth of the Tiber, are addressed to him. It is not determined what office Helpidius held at these dates: it has been thought that he was praeses of Sardinia in A. D. 321, and acted in some emergency for the praetorian praefect of Italy; but it is more likely that he was vicarius or vice-praefect of Italy during the whole period A. D. 320-324, and had Sardinia in his jurisdiction. An Helpidius was consula
Martinia'nus magister officiorum to the emperor Licinius, by whom he was elevated to the dignity of Caesar, when active preparations were in progress for the last great struggle against Constantine. Martinianus was compelled to surrender himself to the conqueror, along with his patron, whose fate he shared towards thr. end of A. D. 323. A rare coin in third brass is found in some collections bearing the legend D. N. MARTINIANUS P. F. AUG., which would indicate that he was created Augustus ; and this conclusion might be drawn from the words of Victor. (De Caes. 41.) [Compare VALENS, AURELIUS VALERIUS.] (Exerpta Vales. 25, 28, 29; Victor, de Caes. 41, Epit. 41 ; Zosim. 2.25, 26, 28.) [W.R]
thinks that the war referred to was Constantine's war with Maxentius in A. D. 312, but supposes that Pachomius was drawn to serve in the army of Maximin II., in his nearly contemporary struggle against Licinius, as it is difficult to conceive that Constantine should be allowed to raise troops by conscription in Egypt, then governed by his jealous partner in the empire, Maximin. A similar difficulty applies to all Constantine's civil contests, until after the final overthrow of Licinius in A. D. 323, and the only civil war of Constantine after that was against Calocerus in Cyprus, in 335 ; the date of which is altogether too late, as Pachomius (Epistol. Ammon. 100.6) was converted in the tine of Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, who died A. D. 326. It is likely, therefore, that the mention of Constantine's name is an error of the biographer, and that Tillemont is right in thinking that the conscription in which Pachomius was drawn was ordered by Maximin II. We may, therefore, with Till
E 100.15.) Paulinus was shortly before his death translated to the bishopric of Antioch (Euseh. Contra Marcel. 1.4; Philostorg. H. E. 3.15) ; but it is disputed whether this was before or after the council of Nice; some place his translation in A. D. 323, others in A. D. 331. Whether He was present at the council of Nice, or even lived to see it, is not determined. The question is argued at considerable length by Valesius (not. ad Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 10.1), Hanckius (De Rerun Byzant. Scriplor. Plesius (not. ad Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 10.1), Hanckius (De Rerun Byzant. Scriplor. Pars i. cap. 1.235, &c.), and by Tillemont (Mém. vol. vii. p. 646, &c). We are disposed to acquiesce in the judgment of Le Quien, who places the accession of Paulinus to the see of Antioch in A. D. 323 or 324, and his death in the latter year. (Euseb. Il. cc.; Hieron. Chroonicon, sub init.; Sozomen. Theodoret. Philostorg. Il. cc.; Tillemont, vol. vi. vii; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, vol. ii. col. 708, 803). [J.C.M
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Seve'rus, Aci'lius consul A. D. 323, with Vettius Rufinus, in the reign of Constantius. (Fasti.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
e episcopate of Proclus of Constantinople"), he must have written after the death of that prelate in A. D. 446 ; but we think the words do not necessarily lead to that conclusion. Work The only work of Sozomen which has come down to our time is his *)Ekklhsiastikh\ i(storia, Historia Ecclesiastica. His first design was to comprehend in this work the whole period from the ascension of Christ; but considering that the earlier period, to the overthrow of Licinius by Constantine the Great, A. D. 323, had been already treated of by other writers, among whom he enumerates Clemens (apparently meaning the Pseudo-Clemens, author of the Recognitiones or the Clementina), Hegesippus, Africanus, and Eusebius, he contracted his plan so far as related to that period, and comprehended it in a separate work, a compendium in two books, which is now lost (H. E. lib. 1.1). His longer history is in nine books, but is imperfect; for though he proposed to bring it down to the seventeenth consulship of t