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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 12 12 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 325 AD or search for 325 AD in all documents.

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to each to hold his own opinions, provided he did not disturb the outward union of the church. (Euseb. De Vit. Const. M. 2.64, &c.) This letter was carried to Alexandria, whither Arius had returned in the meantime, by Hosius, bishop of Corduba, who was also to act as mediator. But Hosius soon adopted the views of Alexander, and his mission had no effect. The disputes became more vehement from day to day, and Constantine at last saw himself obliged to convoke a general council at Nicaea, A. D. 325, at which upwards of 300 bishops were present, principally from the eastern part of the empire, and among them Arius, Alexander, and his friend Athanasius. Each defended his own opinions; but Arius being the accused party was in a disadvantageous position, and a confession of faith, which he presented to the council, was torn to pieces in his presence. Athanasius was the most vehement opponent of Arius, and after long debates the council came to the resolution, that the Son of God was bego
rrunner) of Asia Minor; murdered by the Arsacid Anag, who was the father of St. Gregory, the apostle of Armenia.--A. D. 232. Ardashir or Artaxerxes, the first Sassanid of Persia.--A. D. 259. Dertad or Tiridates II., surnamed Medz, the son of Chosroes, established by the Romans.--A. D. 314. Interregnum. Sanadrug seizes northern Armenia, and Pagur southern Armenia, but only for a short time.--A. D. 316. Chosroes or Khosrew II., surnamed P'hok'hr, or " the Little," the son of Tiridates Mezd.--A. D. 325. Diran or Tiranus I., his son.--A. D. 341. Arsaces or Arshag III., his son. --A. D. 370. Bab or Para.--A. D. 377. Waraztad, usurper.--A. D. 382. Arsaces IV. (and Valarsaces or Wagharshag II., his brother).--A. D. 387. Armenia divided.--A. D. 389. Arsaces IV. dies. Cazavon in Roman Armenia, Chosroes or Khosrew III. in Persarmenia.--A. D. 392. Bahram Shapur (Sapor), the brother of Chosroes III.--A. D. 414. Chosroes re-established by Yezdegerd.--A. D. 415. Shapur or Sapor, the son of Yezdege
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Athana'sius or St. Athana'sius (search)
of whom he eventually became the biographer; and this early acquaintance laid the foundation of a friendship which was interrupted only by the death of the aged recluse. [ANTONIUS, ST.] At what age Athanasius was ordained a deacon is nowhere stated; but he was young both in years and in office when he vigorously supported Alexander in maintaining the orthodox faith against the earliest assaults of the Arians. He was still only a deacon when appointed a member of the famous council of Nice (A. D. 325), in which he distinguished himself as an able opponent of the Arian doctrine, and assisted in drawing up the creed that takes its name from that assembly. In the following year Alexander died; and Athanasius, whom he had strongly recommended as his successor, was raised to the vacant see of Alexandria, the voice of the people as well as the suffrages of the ecclesiastics being decisively in his favour. The manner in which he discharged the duties of his new office was highly exemplary;
, was a Platonic philosopher, who lived probably during the sixth century of the Christian aera, although many place him as early as the fourth. Works He wrote an Interpretatio Latina partis prioris Timaei Platonici, to which is appended a voluminous and learned commentary inscribed to a certain Osius or Hosius, whom Barth and others have asserted, upon no sure grounds, to be Osius bishop of Cordova, who took a prominent part in the proceedings of the great council of Nicaea, held in A. D. 325. The writer of these annotations refers occasionally with respect to the Mosaic dispensation, and speaks, as a believer might, of the star which heralded the nativity of our Lord, but expresses himself throughout with so much ambiguity or so much caution, that he has been claimed by men of all creeds. Some have not scrupled to maintain, that he was a deacon or archdeacon of the church at Carthage; Fulgentius Planciades dedicates his tracts Allegoria librorum Virgilli and De prisco Sermone
Geo'rgius 29. Of LAODICEIA, one of the leaders of the Arian, or rather Semi-Arian party in the ecclesiastical struggles of the fourth century. His family were of Alexandria, and it is probable that he was born and spent his early life there. He was a presbyter of the church of Alexandria before the council of Nice (A. D. 325), and was anxious to soothe the irritation caused by the dispute beteen Alexander, the bishop, and Arius. [ALEXANDER, vol. i. p. 111b., ARIUS, ATHANASIUS.] The letters which he wrote for this purpose, both to the bishop and to the Arian clergy, of which extracts are given by Athanasius (De Synodis, 100.17), show that he held the Son to have been produced by the Father. It was probably this opinion that led to his deposition from the office of presbyter; though. Athanasitus says (Ib.) that there were other charges against him, but does not state what they were. He elsewhere says he was deposed "for his wickednesss" dia\ th\n kaki/an au)tou= (Apol. de Fuga sua, 100
tion, returned as metropolitan into Armenia, baptized Tiridates and his queen and many other persons, built new churches, and established schools. He afterwards quitted the court, and retired to solitude, frequently, however, visiting the Armenian churches. Some modern authorities style him martyr, but apparently without any foundation. The conversion of the Armenians took place about the beginning of the fourth century, and Gregory was still living at the time of the first Nicene council, A. D. 325, to which one of his sons was sent, apparently as representing the Armenian churches. Works Many discourses, professedly by Gregory, are given in the work of Agathangelus: they are for the most part omitted by Symeon Metaphrastes. Homilies in Armenian probably spurious It is there said that there are several homilies extant in the Armenian tongue, ascribed to Gregory, but in all probability spurious. Encomium Sancti Gregorii Armenorum Illuminatoris A discourse, extant in the Armen
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
tune. In religion, he was originally a hypsistarian, a sect who derived their name from their acknowledgment of one supreme God (u(/yistos), and whose religion seems, from what little is known of it, to have been a sort of compound of Judaism and Magianism with other elements. He was converted to Christianity by the efforts and prayers of his wife Nonna, aided by a miraculous dream, and by the teaching of certain bishops, who passed through Nazianzus, on their way to the council of Nicaea, A. D. 325. His baptism was marked by omens, which were soon fulfilled in his elevation to the see of Nazianzus, about A. D. 329. He governed well, and resisted Arianism. His eldest son, Gregory, was born after he became bishop. In 360 he was entrapped by the Arians, through his desire for peace, into the signature of the confession of Ariminum, an act which caused the orthodox monks of Nazianzus to form a violent party against him. The schism was healed by the aid of his son Gregory, and the old bi
been condemned on some charge not stated by a synod of Spanish bishops, and absolved by the prelates of Gaul. Augustin (Contra Epistolam Parmeniani, 1.7) virtually admits the truth of this statement; and, from the nature of the Donatist controversy, it is not improbable that the charge was of some unworthy submission during the persecution of Diocletian--a charge not inconsistent with the closing incident in the career of Hosius. Hosius certainly took part in the council of Nicaea (Nice) A. D. 325; and, although the earlier writers, Eusebius, Sozomen, and Socrates give no ground for the assertions of Baronius (Annal. Eccles. ad ann. 325, xx.) that Hosius presided, and that in the character of legate of the pope, who was absent, and even Tillemont admits that the proofs of these assertions are feeble, yet it is remarkable that the subscription of Hosius in the Latin copies of the Acta of the council stands first; and Athanasius says that he usually presided in councils, and that his
xpelled from home by his father, an idolatrous priest, because he refused to participate in his idolatrous practices, found a refuge with Jacobus. The Menaea of the Greeks ascribe to him the conversion of many idolators. If this statement has any foundation in fact, it may possibly have reference to his journey into Persia already mentioned. According to Gennadius, he was one of the sufferers in the great persecution under the successors of Diocletian. Jacobus attended the council of Nice, A. D. 325, and distinguished him-self as one of the champions of the Consubstantial party. (Labbe, Concilia, vol. ii. col. 56.) Some (e. g. Fabricius) have affirmed that he took part as an author in the Arian controversy, founding their assertion on a passage of Athanasius. (Ad Episcopos Aegypti et Lybiae Epistola Encyclica contra Arianos, sometimes cited as Contra Arianos, 100.8; Opera, vol. i. p. 278, ed. Benedictin.) But what Athanasius says is, that the writings of the heretics were apparently
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Joannes or Joannes Archaph (search)
Joannes or Joannes Archaph 16. ARCHAPH, *)Arxa/f, an Egyptian schismatic, contemporary with Athanasius. Melitius, an Egyptian bishop, and author of a schism among the Egyptian clergy, having been condemned at the council of Nice A. D. 325, was really bent, while apparently submitting to the judgment of the council, on maintaining his party : and just before his death, which occurred shortly after the council broke up, prepared Joannes or John, surnamed Archaph, one of his partisans, and apparently Melitian bishop of Memphis, to assume the leadership of the body. John did so; and the Melitians being supported in their attacks on the orthodox party by the Arians, the schism became as violent as ever. Athanasius, now patriarch of Alexandria, and leader of the orthodox party [ATHANASIUS], was the great object of attack : and John and his followers sought to throw on him the odium of originating the disturbances and of persecuting his opponents; and especially they charged him with the mu
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