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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 7 7 Browse Search
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had lately lost. He now rezsumed the study of medicine under Sopolis and practised gratuitously, earning money by following his former trade by night (Phil. 3.15) or living upon others. (Theodoret, Hist. Eccl. 2.23.) His chief employment, however, was an irreverent application of logical figures and geometrical diagrams to the Nature of the Word of God. (S. Epiphan. ad v. Hacres. § 2, and comp. § 6, p. 920.) He returned to Antioch on the elevation of his former master Leontius to that See, A. D. 348, and was by him ordained Deacon (S. Ath. § 38, transl. p. 136), though he declined the ordinary duties of the Diaconate and accepted that of teaching, A. D. 350. (Phil. 3.17.) The Catholic laymen, Diodorus and Flavian, protested against this ordination, and Leontius was obliged to depose him. (Thdt. 2.19.) His dispute with Basil of Ancyra, A. D. 351 (fin.), is the first indication of the future schism in the Arian heresy. (Phil. 3.15.) Basil incensed Gallus (who became Caesar, March, A. D.
ous supporters of Eustathius did. Yet Flavian was a strenuous supporter of orthodoxy, and his opposition, with that of his coadjutor Diodorus, though they were both yet laymen, compelled the bishop Leontius to prohibit Aetius, who was preaching his heterodox doctrines at Antioch, under the bishop's protection [AETIUS], from the exercise of the functions of the deaconship to which he had just been raised. The date of this transaction is not fixed; but the episcopate of Leontius commenced in A. D. 348, and lasted about ten years. Whether Flavian and Diodorus were at this time deacons is not clear. Philostorgius states that they were deposed by Leontius for their opposition to him, but does not say from what office. They first introduced the practice of the alternate singing or chanting of the psalms, and the division of the choir into parts, which afterwards became universal in the church. Flavian was ordained priest by Meletius, who was elected bishop of Antioch, A. D. 361, and held
d to recognize him as patriarch, but he was allowed to officiate in the church in which he had been ordained. These events occurred in A. D. 342. On the departure of Constantius Paul returned, but was soon again banished, and Macedonius and his partisans were then by the imperial officers put in possession of the churches, though not without the loss of several hundred lives, through the resistance of the multitude. Macedonius retained possession of the patriarchate and the churches till A. D. 348, when the interposition and threats of Constans obliged Constantius to restore Paul, whose title had been confirmed by the council of Sardica (A. D. 347), and Macedonius was only allowed to officiate in one church, which appears to have been his own private property; but in A. D. 350, after the death of Constans, he regained possession of his see, and commenced a vigorous persecution of his opponents, chased them from the churches in his patriarchate, and banished or tortured them, in some
of whom Theodorus or Theodore was the most illustrious, new monasteries sprung up in his neighbourhood, including one for women, founded by his sister. Of these several communities he was visitor and regulator general, appointing his disciple Theodore superior of his original monastery of Tabenna, and himself removing to the monastery of Proü, which was made the head of the monasteries of the district. He died of a pestilential disorder, which had broken out among the monks, apparently in A. D. 348, a short time before the death or expulsion of the Arian patriarch, Gregory [GREGORIUS, No. 3], and the restoration of Athanasius [ATHANASIUS], at the age, if his birth is rightly fixed in A. D. 292, of fifty-six. Some place his death in A. D. 360. In speaking of Pachomius as the founder of monastic institutions, it must not be supposed that he was the founder of the monastic life. Antonius, Ammonas, Paulus and others [ANTONIUS; AMMONAS ; PAULUS] had devoted themselves to religious solit
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Prude'ntius, Aure'lius Clemens Our acquaintance with the personal history of Prudentius, whom Bentley has designated as "the Horace and Virgil of the Christians," is derived exclusively from a short autobiography in verse, written when the poet was fifty-seven years old, and serving as an introduction to his works, of which it contains a catalogue. From this we gather that he was born during the reign of Constantius II. and Constans, in the consulship of Philippus and Salia, A. D. 348; that after acquiring, when a boy, the rudiments of liberal education, he fiequented, as a youth, the schools of the rhetoricians, indulging freely in dissipated pleasures ; that having attained to manhood, he practised as a forensic pleader; that he subsequently discharged the duties of a civil and criminal judge in two important cities; that he received front the emperor (Theodosius, probably, or Honorius), a high military appointment at court, which placed him in a station next to that of the prince,
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Sa'lia, Fla'vius consul under Constantius II., in A. D. 348, with Flavius Philippus. The poet Prudentius was born in their consulship, as we learn from the introduction to his works.
Thala'ssius 1. Praefectus Praetorio of the East, under Constantius II., possessed great influence with this emperor. He had previously enjoyed the title of Comes, and as such was sent by Constantius on an embassy to his brother Constans at Petobio in Pannonia, in A. D. 348 (Athanasius, Apol. ad Constant. init.). As praefect of the East he did all in his power to excite the bad passions of Gallus, and to inflame Constantius against him. Thalassius died in A. D. 353, and was succeeded by Domitian (Amm. Marc. 14.1, 7; Zosim. 2.48). Godefroy maintains that Thalassius could not have died earlier than A. D. 357 because he is said to have been at the conference at Sirmium, which is usually placed in this year, and because the name of Thalassius, praefectus praetorio, occurs in a law dated A. D. 357. But Tillemont has shown that the conference at Sirmium ought probably to be referred to the year 351; and as Ammianus expressly places the death of Thalassius in A. D. 353, the Thalassius menti