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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 12 12 Browse Search
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uties of the Diaconate and accepted that of teaching, A. D. 350. (Phil. 3.17.) The Catholic laymen, Diodorus and Flavian, protested against this ordination, and Leontius was obliged to depose him. (Thdt. 2.19.) His dispute with Basil of Ancyra, A. D. 351 (fin.), is the first indication of the future schism in the Arian heresy. (Phil. 3.15.) Basil incensed Gallus (who became Caesar, March, A. D. 351) against Aetius, and Leontius' intercession only saved the latter from death. Soon Theophilus BleA. D. 351) against Aetius, and Leontius' intercession only saved the latter from death. Soon Theophilus Blemmys introduced him to Gallus (S. Gr. p. 294), who made him his friend, and often sent him to his brother Julian when in danger of apostacy. (Phil. 3.17.) There is a letter from Gallus extant, congratulating Julian on his adesion to Christianity, as he had heard from Aetius. (Post Epist. Juliani, p. 158, ed. Boisson. Mogunt. 1828.) Aetius was implicated in the murder of Domitian and Montius (see Gibbon, c. 19), A. D. 354 (S. Gr. p. 294, B), but his insignificance saved him from the vengeance of
Chnodoma'rius or CHONDOMA'RIUS (Gundomar), king of the Alemanni, became conspicuous in Roman history in A. D. 351. Magnentius having assumed the purple at Augustodunum, now Autun, in Gaul, the emperor Constantius made an alliance with the Alemanni and induced them to invade Gaul. Their king, Chnodomarius, consequently crossed the Rhine, defeated Decentius Caesar, the brother of Magnentius, destroyed many towns, and ravaged the country without opposition. In 356 Chnodomarius was involved in a war with Julian, afterwards emperor, and then Caesar, who succeeded in stopping the progress of the Alemanni in Gaul, and who defeated them completely in the following year, 357, in a battle near Argentoratum, now Strassburg. Chnodomarius had assembled in his camp the contingents of six chiefs of the Alemanni, viz. Vestralpus, Urius, Ursicinus, Suomarius, Hortarius, and Serapio, the son of Chnodomarius' brother Mederichus, whose original name was Agenarichus; but in spite of their gallant resist
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Constanti'na, Fla'via Ju'lia by some authors named CONSTA'NTIA, daughter of Constantine the Great and Fausta, was married to Hannibalianus, and received from her father the title of Augusta. Disappointed in her ambitious hopes by the death of her husband, she encouraged the revolt of Vetranio [VETRANIO], and is said to have placed the diadem on his brows with her own hand. She subsequently became the wife of Gallus Caesar (A. D. 351), and three years afterwards (A. D. 354) died of a fever in Bithynia. This princess, if we can trust the highly-coloured picture drawn by Ammianus Marcellinus, must have been a perfect demon in the human form, a female fury ever thirsting for blood, and stimulating to deeds of violence and savage atrocity the cruel temper of Gallus, who after her death ascribed many of his former excesses to her evil promptings. (Amm. Marc. 14.1, &c.; Aurel. Vict. 41, 42; Julian, Epist. ad Athen. p. 501, ed. 1630; Philostorg. Hist. Eccl. 3.22, 4.1; Theophan. Chronog. p.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
him as his master, himself as his guilty subject. Constantius evinced equal wisdom: he raised Vetranio from the ground, embraced him, and, as he despised a throne, assigned him a pension, and allowed him to spend the rest of his days at Prusa. (A. D. 351.) Constantius now turned his arms against Magnentius, after having appointed his cousin Gallus as Caesar and commander-in-chief of the army against the Persians. At Mursa, now Essek, a town on the river Drave in Hungary, Magnentius was routed (28th of September, A. D. 351) in a bloody battle, in which Constantius evinced more piety than courage; but where the flower of both armies perished. The conquest of Illyricum and Italy was the fruit of that victory, and Magnentius fled into Gaul. There he was attacked in the east by the army under Constantius, and in the west by another army, which, after having conquered Africa and Spain, crossed the Pyrenees and penetrated into Gaul. After another complete defeat at mount Seleucus in the C
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Magnentius Dece'ntius the brother or cousin of Magnentius, by whom, after the death of Constans, he was created Caesar, A. D. 351, and raised to the consulship the following year. During the war in Gaul against the Alemanni, Decentius was defeated by Chnodomarius, the leader of the barbarians, and upon this, or some previous occasion, the Treviri, rising in rebellion, closed their gates and refused to admit him into their city. Upon receiving intelligence of the death of Magnentius, to whose aid he was hastening, and finding that foes surrounded him on every side so as to leave no hope of escape, he strangled himself at Sens on the 1 th of August, A. D. 353. The medals which assign to this prince the title of Augustus are deemed spurious by the best authorities. His name appears upon genuine coins under the form MAG. or MAGN. DECENTIUS, leaving it doubtful whether we ought to interpret the contraction by Magnus or Magnentius. Decentius is called the brother of Magnentius by Victor,
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
S (JULIUS) CONSTANTIUS GALLUS, the son of Julius Constantius and Galla, grandson of Constantius Chlorus, nephew of Constantine the Great, and elder brother, by a different mother, of Julian the Apostate. (See Genealogical Table, vol. I. p. 832.) Having been spared, in consequence of his infirm health, in the general massacre of the more dangerous members of the imperial family, which followed the death of his uncle, and in which his own father and an elder brother were involved, he was, in A. D. 351, named Caesar by Constantius II., and left in the east to repel the incursions of the Persians. The principal events of his subsequent career, and the manner of his death, which happened A. D. 354, are detailed elsewhere. [CONSTANTIUS II., p. 848.] The appellation of Gallus was dropped upon his elevation to the rank of Caesar (Victor, de Caes. 42), and hence numismatologists have experienced considerable difficulty in separating the medals ot this prince from those of his cousin, Constan
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Clau'dius Apostata (search)
their words and actions to a jealous and bloodthirsty tyrant. However, they received a careful and learned education, and were brought up in the principles of the Christian religion: their teachers were Nicocles Luco, a grammarian, and Ecebolus, a rhetorician, who acted under the superintendence of the eunuch Mardonius, probably a pagan in secret, and of Eusebius, an Arian, afterwards bishop of Nicomedeia. Gallus was the first who was released from his slavery by being appointed Caesar in A. D. 351, and governor of the East, and it was through his mediation that Julian obtained more liberty. The conduct of Gallus in his government, and his execution by Constantius in A. D. 354, are detailed elsewhere. [CONSTANTIUS II., p. 848.] Julian was now in great danger, and the emperor would probably have sacrificed him to his jealousy but for the circumstance that he had no male issue himself, and that Julian was consequently the only other surviving male of the imperial family. Constantius wa
s was quickly conveyed to Constantius, who hurried from the frontier of Persia to vindicate the honour of his house, by crushing this double rebellion. The events which followed-the fruitless attempts of the two pretenders to negotiate a peace-the submission of Vetranio at Sardica-the distress of Constantius in Pannonia, which induced him in his turn, but fruitlessly, to make overtures to his opponent-the defeat of Magnentius at the sanguinary battle of Mursa on the Drave, in the autumn of A. D. 351, followed by the loss of Italy, Sicily, Africa, and Spain--his second defeat in the passes of the Cottian Alps--the defection of Gaul--and his death by his own hands about the middle of August, A. D. 353, are fully detailed in other articles. [CONSTANTIUS, p. 847; DECENTIUS, DESIDERIUS, NEPOTIANUS, VETRANIO.] Magnentius was a man of commanding stature great bodily strength, was well educated, and accomplished, fond of literature, an animated and impressive speaker, a bold soldier, and a
hat prince was destroyed (A. D. 350). Marcellinus, now holding the rank of Magister Officiorum and general in chief of the troops, was employed by the usurper to suppress the insurrection of Nepotianus, on which occasion he displayed the most savage cruelty towards the wealthier and more distinguished inhabitants of Rome. He subsequently headed the embassy despatched to offer terms of peace and alliance to Constantius, and is said to have been seized and detained by the indignant emperor, but we find him soon afterwards at liberty, commanding the armies of the West, and he probably perished at the great battle of Mursa, A. D. 351. Marcellinus is represented by Julian as animated by the most violent and implacable hostility towards all the members of the house of Constantine, and as the master rather than the servant of Magnentius. [CONSTANS I.; CONSTANTIUS; MAGNENTIUS; VETRANIO; NEPOTIANUS.] (Codex Theod. Chron. p. 41; Julian, Orat. 1.2; Zosim. 2.41-54; Aurel. Vict. Epit. 41.) [W.R]
ong those on whom the Council of Sardica passed sentence of condemnation and deposition. (Socrat. H. E. 2.20; Sozomen. H. E. 3.11, &c.; Theodoret. H. E. 2.7, 8 ; Athanas. Apolog. contra Arianos, 100.36, Historico Arianor. 100.17; Hilar. Pictav. Ex Opere Historico Fragment. 3.29.) He nevertheless appears to have retained his bishopric, the Council not being able to carry into effect the sentence which they had pronounced. He assisted at the Council of Sirmium and the deposition of Photinus, A. D. 351. (Hilar. Pictav. ibid. 6.7, col. 1337, ed. Benedictin.) He appears to have died about A. D. 355 (Fabric. Tillemont, ubi infrà) or 358 (Cave, ubi infra). After the development of the different sections of the Arian party Theodore acted with the Eusebians or Semi-Arians. In an ancient life of St. Parthenius of Lampsacus (apud Acta Sanctorum Februar. a. d. vii. vol. ii. pp. 41, 42), there is a Latin version of a curious account of the sickness, recovery, and subsequent death of Theodore (who,