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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 11 11 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ater than 390, since a reference occurs to the consulship of Neoterius, which belongs to that year. Works Rerum gestarum libri The work of Ammianus extended from the accession of Nerva, A. D. 96, the point at which the histories of Tacitus and the biographies of Suetonius terminated, to the death of Valens, A. D. 378, comprising a period of 282 years. It was divided into thirty-one books, of which the first thirteen are lost. The remaining eighteen embrace the acts of Constantius from A. D. 353, the seventeenth year of his reign, together with the whole career of Gallus, Julianus, Jovianus, Valentinianus, and Valens. The portion preserved includes the transactions of twenty-five years only, which proves that the earlier books must have presented a very condensed abridgment of the events contained in the long space over which they stretched; and hence we may feel satisfied, that what has been saved is much more valuable than what has perished. Gibbon (cap. xxvi.) pays a well-des
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Athana'sius or St. Athana'sius (search)
ession. He was once more received at Alexandria with overflowing signs of gladness and affection. Restored to his see, he immediately proceeded against the Arians with great vigour, and they, on their side, renewed against him the charges which had been so often disproved. Constans, the friend of Athanasius, was now dead; and though Constantius, at this juncture, professed great friendliness for the primate, he soon attached himself once more to the Arian party. In a council held at Arles (A. D. 353), and another at Milan (A. D. 355), they succeeded by great exertions in procuring the condemnation of Athanasius. On the latter occasion, the whole weight of the imperial authority was thrown into the scale against him; and those of the bishops who resolutely vindicated his cause were punished with exile. Among these (though his banishment occurred some time after the synod of Milan had closed) was Liberius, bishop of Rome. Persecution was widely directed against those who sided with Ath
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
um and Italy was the fruit of that victory, and Magnentius fled into Gaul. There he was attacked in the east by the army under Constantius, and in the west by another army, which, after having conquered Africa and Spain, crossed the Pyrenees and penetrated into Gaul. After another complete defeat at mount Seleucus in the Cossian Alps, and the rebellion of the principal cities in Gaul, Magnentius, reduced to extremity, put an end to his life, and his brother Decentius followed his example. (A. D. 353.) [MAGNENTIUS.] Constantius became thus master of the whole West. He avenged the murder of his brother Constans, and established his authority by cruel measures, and neither the guilty nor the innocent were exempt from his resentment. Once more the immense extent of the Roman empire was ruled by one man. The administration of the government and the public and private life of Constantius, approached more and more those of an Asiatic monarch: eanuchs reigned at the court, and secret murde
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
he following year. During the war in Gaul against the Alemanni, Decentius was defeated by Chnodomarius, the leader of the barbarians, and upon this, or some previous occasion, the Treviri, rising in rebellion, closed their gates and refused to admit him into their city. Upon receiving intelligence of the death of Magnentius, to whose aid he was hastening, and finding that foes surrounded him on every side so as to leave no hope of escape, he strangled himself at Sens on the 1 th of August, A. D. 353. The medals which assign to this prince the title of Augustus are deemed spurious by the best authorities. His name appears upon genuine coins under the form MAG. or MAGN. DECENTIUS, leaving it doubtful whether we ought to interpret the contraction by Magnus or Magnentius. Decentius is called the brother of Magnentius by Victor, de Caes. 42, by Eutropius, 10.7, and by Zonaras, 13.8, 9; the kinsman (consanguineum,-- ge/nei sunaptome/non) by Victor, Epit. 42, and by Zosimus, 2.45, 54. See
Gero'ntius 1. A Roman officer (Ammianus calls him "comes") who embraced the party of Magnentius, and was condemned by the emperor Constantius II. when at Arelate (Arles), A. D. 353, to be tortured and banished. (Amm. Marc. 14.5.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Clau'dius Apostata (search)
Venice, 1499, 4to., contains only 48 letters; Spanheim published 63 in his edition of the works of Julian; others were found in later times, four of which are printed in Fabricius, Biblioth. Graec.; the last and best edition is by L. H. Heyler, Mainz, 1828, 8vo.; it contains 83 letters, with a Latin translation and a commentary of the editor. There are besides some fragments of lost letters. Among the letters of Julian, there is also one which was written to him by his brother Gallus, in A. D. 353, who advises him to remain faithful to the Christian religion. The authenticity of several letters is contested. They treat on various subjects, and are of great importance for the history of the time. One, which was addressed to the senate and people of Athens, and in which the author explains the motives of his having taken up arms against the emperor Constantius, is an interesting and most important historical document. II. Orations. 1. *)Egkw/mion pro\s au)tokra/tora *Kwnsta/ntion
violent part against Athanasius, and even excommunicated him from the Roman church. On the other hand, Dupin employs no less than seven distinct arguments to prove that the first must be spurious, although he says nothing with regard to the second, and both are by many divines regarded as Arian forgeries. It is at all events certain that the pope soon after displayed the utmost devotion to the cause of the persecuted Catholics; for after the legates deputed by him to the council of Arles, (A. D. 353), Vincentius of Capua, and Marcellinus, another Campanian bishop, had been gained over, after his representatives at Milan (A. D. 354), Eusebius of Vercelli, and Lucifer of Cagliari, had been driven into exile, after nearly all the prelates of the West had yielded to the influence of the court, Liberius stood firm to the truth; and although violently hurried from Rome to the presence of the emperor, he chose rather to suffer banishment than to subscribe the condemnation of one, whom he bel
Magne'ntius Roman emperor in the West, A. D. 350-353. FLAVIUS POPILIUS MAGNENTIUS, according to the accounts preserved by Victor and Zosimus, belonged to one of those German families who were transported across the Rhine, and established in Gaul, about the end of the third century; according to the statement of Julian, which is not irreconcilable with the former, he was a captive taken in war by Constantius Chlorus, or Constantine. Under the latter he served with reputation in many wars, rose of Mursa on the Drave, in the autumn of A. D. 351, followed by the loss of Italy, Sicily, Africa, and Spain--his second defeat in the passes of the Cottian Alps--the defection of Gaul--and his death by his own hands about the middle of August, A. D. 353, are fully detailed in other articles. [CONSTANTIUS, p. 847; DECENTIUS, DESIDERIUS, NEPOTIANUS, VETRANIO.] Magnentius was a man of commanding stature great bodily strength, was well educated, and accomplished, fond of literature, an animated
o his brother Constans at Petobio in Pannonia, in A. D. 348 (Athanasius, Apol. ad Constant. init.). As praefect of the East he did all in his power to excite the bad passions of Gallus, and to inflame Constantius against him. Thalassius died in A. D. 353, and was succeeded by Domitian (Amm. Marc. 14.1, 7; Zosim. 2.48). Godefroy maintains that Thalassius could not have died earlier than A. D. 357 because he is said to have been at the conference at Sirmium, which is usually placed in this year,use the name of Thalassius, praefectus praetorio, occurs in a law dated A. D. 357. But Tillemont has shown that the conference at Sirmium ought probably to be referred to the year 351; and as Ammianus expressly places the death of Thalassius in A. D. 353, the Thalassius mentioned in the law may have been praefectus praetorio of Illyricum. The matter is discussed by Tillemont, Histoire des Empereurs, vol. iv. note xxix. sur Constance. This Thalassius appears to have written some work on the hi