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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 16 16 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
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and Leontius' intercession only saved the latter from death. Soon Theophilus Blemmys introduced him to Gallus (S. Gr. p. 294), who made him his friend, and often sent him to his brother Julian when in danger of apostacy. (Phil. 3.17.) There is a letter from Gallus extant, congratulating Julian on his adesion to Christianity, as he had heard from Aetius. (Post Epist. Juliani, p. 158, ed. Boisson. Mogunt. 1828.) Aetius was implicated in the murder of Domitian and Montius (see Gibbon, c. 19), A. D. 354 (S. Gr. p. 294, B), but his insignificance saved him from the vengeance of Constantius. However, he quitted Antioch for Alexandria, where St. Athanasius was maintaining Christianity against Arianism, and in A. D. 355 acted as Deacon under George of Cappadocia, the violent interloper into the See of St. Athanasius. (St. Ep. 76.1; Thdt. 2.24.) Here Eunomius became his pupil (Phil. 3.20) and amanuensis. (Soc. 2.35.) He is said by Philostorgius (3.19) to have refused ordination to the Episcopa
o have been the son of Artavasdes III. During the war of Diocletian with Narses, king of Persia, this king of Armenia joined the Roman army commanded by Galerius Caesar. After the accession of Maximinianus he was involved in a war with this emperor, who intended to abolish the Christian religion in Armenia. TIRIDATES III. [TIRIDATES III.] Arsaces Iii. Tiranus the son of Diran (Tiridates III.), ascended the throne either in the seventeenth year of the reign of Constantius, that is, in A. D. 354, or perhaps as early as 341 or 342, after his father had been made prisoner and deprived of his sight by Sapor II., king of Persia. After the reconciliation of Sapor with his captive Diran (Tiridates), Arsaces was chosen king, since his father, on account of his blindness, was unable to reign according to the opinion of the eastern nations, which opinion was also entertained by the Greeks of the Lower Empire, whence we so often find that when an emperor or usurper succeeded in making his r
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Arsaces Iii. Tiranus the son of Diran (Tiridates III.), ascended the throne either in the seventeenth year of the reign of Constantius, that is, in A. D. 354, or perhaps as early as 341 or 342, after his father had been made prisoner and deprived of his sight by Sapor II., king of Persia. After the reconciliation of Sapor with his captive Diran (Tiridates), Arsaces was chosen king, since his father, on account of his blindness, was unable to reign according to the opinion of the eastern nations, which opinion was also entertained by the Greeks of the Lower Empire, whence we so often find that when an emperor or usurper succeeded in making his rival prisoner, he usually blinded him, if he did not venture to put him to death. The nomination of Arsaces was approved by the emperor Constantius. The new king nevertheless took the part of Sapor in his war with the Romans, but soon afterwards made peace with the latter. He promised to pay an annual tribute, and Constantius allowed him to mar
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Aure'lius Augusti'nus or St. Augusti'nus the most illustrious of the Latin fathers, was born on the 13th of November, A. D. 354, at Tagaste, an inland town in Numidia, identified by D'Anville with the modern Tajelt. His father, Patricius, who died about seventeen years after the birth of Augustin, was originally a heathen, but embraced Christianity late in life. Though poor, he belonged to the curiales of Tagaste. (August. Conf. 2.3.) He is described by his son as a benevolent but hottempered man, comparatively careless of the morals of his offspring, but anxious for his improvement in learning, as the means of future success in life. Monnica, * For the orthography of this name, see Bahr, Geschichte der Römischen Literatur, Supplemenit, vol. ii. p. 225. and note p. 228. the mother of Augustin, was a Christian of a singularly devout and gentle spirit, who exerted herself to the utmost in training up her son in the practice of piety ; but his disposition, complexionally ardent and head
Barba'tio commander of the household troops under the Caesar Gallus, arrested his master, by command of Constantius, at Petovium in Noricum, and thence, after stripping him of the ensigns of his dignity, conducted him to Pola in Istria, A. D. 354. In return for his services, he was promoted, upon the death of Silvanus, to the rank of general of the infantry (peditum mayister), and was sent with an army of 25,000 or 30,000 men to cooperate with Julian in the campaign against the Alemanni in 356; but he treacherously deserted him, either through envy of Julian, or in accordance with the secret instructions of the emperor. In 358, he defeated the Juthungi, who had invaded Rhaetia; and, in the following year, he was beheaded by command of Constantius, in consequence of an imprudent letter which his wife had written him, and which the emperor thought indicated treasonable designs on his part. (Amm. Marc 14.11, 16.11, 17.6, 18.3; Liban. Orat. x. p. 273.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Constanti'na, Fla'via Ju'lia by some authors named CONSTA'NTIA, daughter of Constantine the Great and Fausta, was married to Hannibalianus, and received from her father the title of Augusta. Disappointed in her ambitious hopes by the death of her husband, she encouraged the revolt of Vetranio [VETRANIO], and is said to have placed the diadem on his brows with her own hand. She subsequently became the wife of Gallus Caesar (A. D. 351), and three years afterwards (A. D. 354) died of a fever in Bithynia. This princess, if we can trust the highly-coloured picture drawn by Ammianus Marcellinus, must have been a perfect demon in the human form, a female fury ever thirsting for blood, and stimulating to deeds of violence and savage atrocity the cruel temper of Gallus, who after her death ascribed many of his former excesses to her evil promptings. (Amm. Marc. 14.1, &c.; Aurel. Vict. 41, 42; Julian, Epist. ad Athen. p. 501, ed. 1630; Philostorg. Hist. Eccl. 3.22, 4.1; Theophan. Chronog. p.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ying Gallus, when they ought to have ensnared him with gentle persuasions and intrigues, according to their instructions. They were torn to pieces by the mob excited by Gallus, who after such an atrocious act seemed to have had but one means of saving himself from the emperor's resentment,--rebellion. But deceived by new promises from the artful Constantius, he went to meet him at Milan. At Petovio in Pannonia he was arrested, and sent to Pola in Istria, where he was beheaded in a prison. (A. D. 354.) Julian, the brother of Gallus was likewise arrested; but, after having spent about a year in prison and exile, was pardoned at the intervention of his protectress, the empress Eusebia, and in November, 355, was created Caesar and appointed to the command-in-chief in Gaul, which was suffering from the consequences of the rebellion of Sylvanus, who had assumed the purple, but was ensnared by Ursicinus, by whom he was murdered in the church of St. Severin at Cologne in September, 355. In
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
was wont to assemble in his house and retain for long periods, living with them in common, and stimulating them by his example to acts of devotion and self-denial. This is said to be the first instance upon record of an attempt to combine the duties of an active priesthood with monastic observances, and is belived to have led the way to the institution of regular canons, and to have suggested many of the principles upon which cathedral establishments were formed and regulated. Eusebius, in A. D. 354, at the request of Liberius, undertook, in company with Lucifer of Cagliari and the deacon Hilarius, an embassy to Constantius, by whom the persecution of Athanasius had been sanctioned. In consequence of their urgent representations the council of Milan was summoned the following year, where Eusebius pleaded the cause of the true faith with so much freedom and energy, that the Arian emperor, we are told, in a transport of rage drew his sword upon the orator, whom he banished on the spot t
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
state. (See Genealogical Table, vol. I. p. 832.) Having been spared, in consequence of his infirm health, in the general massacre of the more dangerous members of the imperial family, which followed the death of his uncle, and in which his own father and an elder brother were involved, he was, in A. D. 351, named Caesar by Constantius II., and left in the east to repel the incursions of the Persians. The principal events of his subsequent career, and the manner of his death, which happened A. D. 354, are detailed elsewhere. [CONSTANTIUS II., p. 848.] The appellation of Gallus was dropped upon his elevation to the rank of Caesar (Victor, de Caes. 42), and hence numismatologists have experienced considerable difficulty in separating the medals ot this prince from those of his cousin, Constantius II., struck during the lifetime of Constantine the Great, since precisely the same designation, CONSTANTIUS CAESAR, is found applied to both. Several of the coins of Gallus, however, have the
, concerned in assembling the Arian councils of Seleuceia (A. D. 359) and Constantinople (A. D. 360). According to Socrates and Sozomen, Gregory, whom the Arian party had appointed to the see of Alexandria, vacant by the expulion of Athanasius,had becomeunpopular, through the tumults and disasters to which his appointment had led; and was at the same time regarded as not zealous enough in the support of Arianism. He was therefore removed, and George was appointed by the council of Antioch (A. D. 354, or, according to Mansi, A. D. 356;) in his place. It is probable that George was appointed from his subserviency to the court, and his readiness to promote to any fiscal exactions, and his general unscrupulousness; and he was induced to accept the appointment by the hope of gain, or, as Athanasis ext presses it, "he was hired" to become bishop. Count Heraclian was sent by Constantius to gain the support of the heathen people of Alexandria to apud George's election; and he succeeded in his
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