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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 21 21 Browse Search
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Ae'rius (*)Ae/rios), Heretic, the intimate friend of Eustathius of Sebaste in Armenia, A. D. 360, was living when St. Epiphanius wrote his Book against Heresies, A. D. 374-6. After living together an ascetic life, Eustathius was raised to the episcopate, and by him Aerius was ordained priest and set over the Hospital (ptwxotrofei=on) of Pontus. (St. Epiph. ad v. Haer. 75.1.) But nothing could allay the envy of Aerius at the elevation of his companion. Caresses and threats were in vain, and at last he left Eustathius, and publicly accused him of covetousness. He assembled a troop of men and women, who with him professed the renunciation of all worldly goods (a)potaci/a). Denied entrance into the towns, they roamed about the fields, and lodged in the open air or in caves, exposed to the inclemency of the seasons. Aerius superadded to the irreligion of Arius the following errors : 1. The denial of a difference of order between a bishop and a priest. 2. The rejection of prayer and alms f
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
A'LCIMUS (AVI'TUS) ALE'THIUS Works Seven poems in the Latin Anthology the writer of seven short poems in the Latin anthology, whom Wernsdorf has shewn (Poet. Lat. Min. vol. vi. p. 26, &c.) to be the same person as Alcimus, the rhetorician in Aquitania, in Gaul, who is spoken of in terms of high praise by Sidonius Apollinaris, (Epist. 8.11, 5.10,) and Ausonius. (Profess. Bardigal. ii.) His date is determined by Hieronymus in his Chronicon, who says that Alcimus and Delphidins taught in Aquitania in A. D. 360. His poems are superior to most of his time. Editions They are printed by Meier, in his " Anthologia Latina," ep. 254-260, and by Wernsdorf, vol. vi. p. 194, &c.
Andro'nicus (*)Andro/nikos), a Greek POET and contemporary of the emperor Constantius, about A. D. 360. Libanius (Epist. 75; comp. De Vita Sua, p. 68) says, that the sweetness of his poetry gained him the favour of all the towns (probably cf Egypt) as far as the Ethiopians, but that the full development of his talents was checked by the death of his mother and the misfortune of his native town (Hermopolis?). If he is the same as the Andronicus mentioned by Photius (Phot. Bibl. 279, p. 536a. Bekk.) as the author of dramas and various other poems, he was a native of Hermopolis in Egypt, of which town he was decurio. Themistius (Orat. xxix. p. 418, &c.), who speaks of a young poet in Egypt as the author of a tragedy, epic poems, and dithyrambs, appears likewise to allude to Andronicus. In A. D. 359, Andronicus, with several other persons in the cast and in Egypt, incurred the suspicion of indulging in pagan practices. He was tried by Paulus, whom the emperor had despatched for the purpo
Asclepi'ades 5. A CYNIC philosopher, who is mentioned along with Servianus and Chytton, and lived in the reign of Constantius and Julianus, about A. D. 360. (Julian, Orat. c. Heracl. Cyn. p. 224; Ammian. Marc. 22.13.)
Basi'lius (*Basilei/os and *Basi/lios), commonly called BASIL. 1. Bishop of ANCYRA (A. D. 336-360), originally a physician, was one of the chief leaders of the Semi-Arian party, and the founder of a sect of Arians which was named after him. He was held in high esteem by the emperor Constantius, and is praised for his piety and learning by Socrates and Sozomen. He was engaged in perpetual controversies both with the orthodox and with the ultra Arians. His chief opponent was Acacius, through wtius, and is praised for his piety and learning by Socrates and Sozomen. He was engaged in perpetual controversies both with the orthodox and with the ultra Arians. His chief opponent was Acacius, through whose influence Basil was deposed by the synod of Constantinople (A. D. 360), and banished to Illyricum. He wrote against his predecessor Marcellus, and a work on Virginity. His works are lost. (Hieron. de Vir. Illust. 89 ; Epiphan. Haeres. 73.1; Socrates, H. E. 2.30, 42; Sozomen, H. E. 2.43
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
r known as having been the brother of St. Gregory Theologus. He was born of Christian parents, his father (whose name was Gregory) being bishop of Nazianzus. He was carefully and religiously educated, and studied at Alexandria, where he made great progress in geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and medicine. He afterwards embraced the medical profession, and settled at Constantinople, where he enjoyed a great reputation, and became the friend and physician of the emperor Constantius, A. D. 337-360. Upon the accession of Julian, Caesarius was tempted by the emperor to apostatize to paganism; but he refused, and chose rather to leave the court and return to his native country. After the death of Julian, he was recalled to court, and held in high esteem by the emperors Jovian, Valens, and Valentinian, by one of whom he was appointed quaestor of Bithynia. At the time of the earthquake at Nicaea, he was preserved in a very remarkable manner, upon which his brother St. Gregory took occasion
Cassia'nus otherwise called JOANNES MASSILIENSIS and JOANNES EREMITA, is celebrated in the history of the Christian church as the champion of Semipelagianism, as one of the first founders of monastic fraternities in Western Europe, and as the great lawgiver by whose codes such societies were long regulated. The date of his birth cannot be determined with certainty, although A. D. 360 must be a close approximation, and the place is still more doubtful. Some have fixed upon the shores of the Euxine, others upon Syria, others upon the South of France, and all alike appeal for confirmation of their views to particular expressions in his works, and to the general character of his phraseology. Without pretending to decide the question, it seems on the whole most probable that he was a native of the East. At a very early age he became an inmate of the monastery of Bethlehem, where he received the first elements of religious instruction, and formed with a monk named Germanus an intimacy whic
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
us. Accordingly, orders arrived in Gaul that the legions employed there should march to the defence of the East. The pretext for this command was, that Gaul being tranquil, no great army was required there, but the real motive was the fear that Julian might abuse his popularity, and assume the purple. Instead of preventing tnat event, the iniprudent order caused it. The troops refused to march; and Julian having nevertheless brought thicu into motion, they suddenly proclaimed him emperor. (A. D. 360.) It is related in the life of Julian how he acted under these circumstances; his protestations of innocence were misconstrued; his ambassadors, who met with Constantius at Caesareia, were dismissed with anger, and war was declared. Constantius, with the greater part of his army, marched to the West, and the empire was on the eve of being shaken by a dreadful civil war, when the sudden death of Constantius at Mopsocrene, near Tarsus in Cilicia (3rd of November, A. D. 361), prevented that c
Euno'mius (*Eu)no/mios), was a native of Dacora, a village in Cappadocia, and a disciple of the Arian Aetius, whose heretical opinions he adopted. He was, however, a man of far greater talent and acquirements thin Aetius, and extended his views so far, that he himself became the founder of a sect called the Eunomians or Anomoei, because they not only denied the equality between the Father and the Son, but even the similarity (o(moio/ths). Eunomius was at first a deacon at Antioch, and in A. D. 360 he succeeded Eleusius as bishop of Cyzicus. But lie did not remain long in the enjoyment of that post, for he was deposed in the same year by the command of the emperor Constantius, and expelled by the inhabitants of Cyzicus. (Philostorg. 9.5; Theodoret, 2.27, 29 ; Socrat. 4.7; Sozom. 6.8.) In the reign of Julian and Jovian, Eunomius lived at Constantinople, and in the reign of Valens, he resided in the neighbourhood of Chalcedon, until he was denounced to the emperor for harbouring in his
lus had been chosen emperor by the soldiers); but on proceeding there to take possession, he was driven away by a tumultuous mob, who had heard a report of his being a sorcerer, based upon the fact that he was fond of astronomical studies. He fled to Laodiceia, and lived with George, bishop of that place, by whose exertions he was afterwards restored to Emisa. He was a great favourite with the emperor Constantius, whom he accompanied on some military expeditions. He died at Antioch, about A. D. 360. His enemies accused him of Sabellianism, but the truth of the charge is denied by Sozomen (3.5). Works Eusebius wrote several books enumerated by Jerome (de Script. 90), e. g. a treatise against the Jews, Homilies, &c. Extant works attributed to Eusebius Some homilies on the Gospels, and about fifty on other subjects, are extant under his name; but they are probably spurious, and of more recent date. Editions They were published at Paris, 1575, and at Antwerp, 1602. Confusion w
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