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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 19 19 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 361 AD or search for 361 AD in all documents.

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ut mention of his district. (Cod. Th. 12. tit. 1. s. 38, ib. s. 39.) He is, however, distinctly mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus as P. P. of Illyricum, A. D. 359 (Am. Marc. 19.11.2), and his death in that office is recorded by the same author, A. D. 361. (21.6.5.) Whether he were at first praefect of some other district, or whether he held the same office continuously from A. D. 346 to A. D. 361, cannot now be determined. His administration is mentioned by Marcellinus as an era of unusual impA. D. 361, cannot now be determined. His administration is mentioned by Marcellinus as an era of unusual improvement, and is also recorded by Aurelius Victor (Trajan) as a bright but solitary instance of reform, which checked the downward progress occasioned by the avarice and oppression of provincial governors. He is often spoken of in the letters of Libanius; and several letters of Libanius are extant addressed directly to Anatolius, and, for the most part, asking favours or recommending friends. We would refer especially to the letters 18, 466, 587, as illustrating the character of Anatolius. When
Consta'ntia 2. FLAVIA MAXIMA CONSTANTIA, the daughter of the emperor Constantius II. and his third wife, Faustina, was born shortly after the death of her father in A. D. 361. In 375 she was destined to marry the young emperor Gratian, but, on her way to the emperor, was surprised in Illyria by the Quadi, who had invaded the country, and would have been carried away into captivity but for the timely succour of Messalla, the governor of Illyria, who brought her safely to Siriniuum. When a child of four years, she had the misfortune to be seized with her mother by Procopius, a cousin of the emperor Julian, who had raised a rebellion in 365, and who carried his captives with him in all his expeditions, in order to excite his troops by their presence. Constantia died before her husband Gratian, that is, before 383, leaving no issue. (Amm. Marc. 21.15, 25.7, 9, 29.6.) [W.P]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Flavius Julius> Consta'ntius Ii. Roman emperor, A. D. 337-361, whose name is sometimes written Flavius Claudius Constantius, Flavius Valerius Constantius, and Constantinus Constantius. He was the third son of Constantine the Great, and the second whom he had by his second wife, Fausta; he was born at Sirmium in Pannonia on the 6th of August, A. D. 317, in the consulate of Ovidius Gallicanus and Septimius Bassus. He was educated with and received the same careful education as his brothers, Conss declared. Constantius, with the greater part of his army, marched to the West, and the empire was on the eve of being shaken by a dreadful civil war, when the sudden death of Constantius at Mopsocrene, near Tarsus in Cilicia (3rd of November, A. D. 361), prevented that calamity, and made Julian the sole master of the empire [JULIANUS.] By his third wife, Maxima Faustina, Constantius left one daughter, who was afterwards married to the emperor Gratian. (Amm. Marc. lib. xiv.--xxi.; Zosimus, lib
mmenced in A. D. 348, and lasted about ten years. Whether Flavian and Diodorus were at this time deacons is not clear. Philostorgius states that they were deposed by Leontius for their opposition to him, but does not say from what office. They first introduced the practice of the alternate singing or chanting of the psalms, and the division of the choir into parts, which afterwards became universal in the church. Flavian was ordained priest by Meletius, who was elected bishop of Antioch, A. D. 361, and held the see, with three intervals of exile, chiefly occasioned by his opposition to Arianism, till A. D. 381. His first expulsion, which was soon after his election, induced Flavian and others to withdraw from the communion of the church, over which Euzoius, an Arian, had been appointed. The seceders still recognised the deposed prelate; and the church formed by them was, during the third and longest banishment of Meletius, under the care of Flavian and Diodorus, both now in the prie
he might escape the responsibility of compliance or disobedience, remained obstinately at Vienna, busily engaged, as he pretended, in the discharge of official duties; but upon receiving intelligence of the open revolt of the troops and their choice of an Augustus, he immediately repaired to the court of Constantius, that he might both display his own fidelity, and at the same time magnify the guilt of the rebel prince. In recompense of this devotion, he was forthwith nominated consul for A. D. 361, and appointed praetorian prefect of Illyricum, in the room of Anatolius, recently deceased; but on the death of his patron in the same year (361), he fled, along with his colleague Taurus, from the wrath of the new emperor, during the whole of whose reign he remained in close concealment, having, while absent, been impeached and capitally condemned. Julian is said to have generously refused to be informed of the place where his former enemy had sought shelter. (Julian, Epist. 15; Amm. Mar
out, and build a church upon it. The workmen, in clearing it out, found in the adytum, or sacred recess of the old temple, statues, sacred utensils, and the skulls of human victims, either slain in sacrifice, or that the soothsayers might examine their entrails, and foretell future events thereby. Some zealots brought these things out, and exposed them to the mockery and jeers of the Christians. This irritated the heathens; and as the news had just arrived of the death of Constantius (Nov. A. D. 361), and the accession of Julian as sole emperor, and also of the execution of Artemius, ex-governor of Egypt, they thought their time of ascendancy was come, and rose in insurrection. George, whose persecutions seem to have been directed against all who differed from him, was at the time presiding in a synod, where those who held the sentiments of Aetius [AETIUS] were compelled to subscribe a condemnation of their own opinions. The rioters rushed into the church where the synod was assembled
of the friendship he had formed with Athanasius. He took part in the appointment of Meletius to the bishopric of Antioch, and delivered one of three discourses then preached at the desire of the emperor Constantius II. on Prov. viii, 22--" The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old." Iis exposition of the passage was the least orthodox of the three; that of Meletius, the new bishop, the most orthodox. We know nothing of George after the death of Constantius, A. D. 361. His character is not impugned, except for his heresy, by any other writer than Athanasius, who charges him with living intemperately, and thereby incurring reproach even from his own party. It is hard to determine whether there is any, or how much, truth in the charge. Fabricius states (Bibl. Gr. vol. xi. p. 293) that George became in his latter days an Eunomian or Aetian, but he does not cite his authority, and we doubt the correctness of the statement. George of Laodiceia had studied ph
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
d occasioned, and sets forth the duties and difficulties of a Christian minister. It is called his Apologetic Discourse. He was now for some time engaged in the discharge of his duties as a presbyter, and in assisting his aged father in his episcopal functions, as well as in composing the differences between him and the monks of Nazianzus, the happy termination of which he celebrated in three orations. (Orat. xii.--xiv.) In the mean time Julian had succeeded to the throne of Constantius (A. D. 361), and Gregory, like his friend Basil, was soon brought into collision with the apostate emperor, from whose court he persuaded his brother Caesarius to retire. [CAESARIUS, ST.] Whether the unsupported statement of Gregory, that lie and his friend Basil were marked out as the first victims of a new general persecution on Julian's return from Persia, can be relied upon or not, it is certain that the passions of the emperor would soon have overcome his affectation of philosophy, and that his
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Clau'dius Apostata (search)
Julia'nus, Fla'vius Clau'dius or Clau'dius Apostata surnamed APOSTATA, "the Apostate," Roman emperor, A. D. 361-363, was born at Constantinople on the 17th of November, A. D. 331 (332?). He was the son of Julius Constantius by his second wife, Basilina, the grandson of Constantius Chlorus by his second wife, Theodora, and the nephew of Constantine the Great. [See the Genealogical Table, Vol. I. pp. 831, 832.] Julian and his elder brother, Flavius Julius Gallus, who was the son of Julius Cons appearance of Julian on the Danube, Constantius set out from Syria to defend his capital; and a terrible civil war threatened to desolate Italy and the East, to when Constantius suddenly died at Mopsocrene in Cilicia, on the third of November, A. D. 361, leaving the whole empire to the undisputed posses sion of Julian. On the 11th of December following, Julian made his triumphal entrance into Constantinople. Shortly afterwards the mortal remains of Constantius arrived in the Golden Horn, and h
ce to the orthodox doctrine, a scene of great excitement ensued, the people applauding, and the Arians among the clergy, especially the archdeacon, attempting to stop his mouth. Determined now to get rid of him, the Arians charged him with Sabellianism, and persuaded the emperor to depose him and banish him, apparently on a charge either of perjury or of having violated the discipline of the church, to his native country, Melitene, while Euzoius was appointed bishop of Antioch in his room (A. D. 361). This step led to an immediate and extensive schism: the orthodox party broke off from the communion of the Arians, and met in the church of the Apostles, in what was called the old town of Antioch. There had been a previous secession of the more zealous part of the orthodox on occasion of the deposition of Eustathius (A. D. 331),butthetwo seceding bodies remained separate, the Eustathians objecting that Meletius had been ordained by Arians. On the accession of the emperor Julian Meletius
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