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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 9 9 Browse Search
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ught grammar first at Berytus and afterwards at Laodicea (about A. D. 335), where he married, and became a presbyter of the church. Apollinaris and his son enjoyed the friendship of the sophists Libanius and Epiphanius. They were both excommunicated by Theodotus, bishop of Laodicea, for attending the lectures of Epiphanius, but they were restored upon their profession of penitence. Being firm catholics, they were banished by Georgius, the Arian successor of Theodotus. Works When Julian (A. D. 362) issued an edict forbidding Christians to teach the classics, Apollinaris and his son undertook to supply the loss by transferring the Scriptures into a body of poetry, rhetoric, and philosophy. They put the historical books of the Old Testament into poetry, which consisted partly of Homeric hexameters, and partly of lyrics, tragedies, and comedies, in imitation of Pindar, Euripides, and Menander. According to one account, the Old Testament history, up to the reign of Saul, formed a kind
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Athana'sius or St. Athana'sius (search)
th. Julian was probably aware that the superstition he was bent upon re-establishing had no enemy more formidable than the thrice-exiled archbishop: he therefore banished him not only from Alexandria, but from Egypt itself, threatening the prefect of that country with a heavy fine if the sentence were not carried into execution. Theodoret, indeed, affirms, that Julian gave secret orders for inflicting the last penalties of the law upon the hated prelate. He escaped, however, to the desert (A. D. 362), having predicted that this calamity would be but of brief duration; and after a few months' concealment in the monasteries, he returned to Alexandria on receiving intelligence of the death of Julian. By Jovian, who succeeded to the throne of the empire, Athanasius was held in high esteem. When, therefore, his inveterate enemies endeavoured to persuade the emperor to depose him, they were repeatedly repulsed, and that with no little asperity. The speedy demise of Jovian again deprived A
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ir urgent representations the council of Milan was summoned the following year, where Eusebius pleaded the cause of the true faith with so much freedom and energy, that the Arian emperor, we are told, in a transport of rage drew his sword upon the orator, whom he banished on the spot to Scythopolis, a city in the Decapolis of Syria. From thence he was transported into Cappadocia, and afterwards to the Thebaid, where he remained until restored to liberty by the edict of Julian, published in A. D. 362, pronouncing the recall of the exiled prelates. Repairing to Alexandria, in compliance with the request of Athanasius, he was present at the great council (of 362), and his name is appended to the proceedings, being the only signature expressed in Latin characters. From Alexandria, Eusebius proceeded to Antioch, where he attempted in vain to heal the dissensions excited by the election of Paulinus; and after visiting many churches in the East, returned at length to his own diocese, where h
bl. Cod. 165. p. 109, ed. Bekk.) In this position he acquired a very extensive reputation, and some of the most distinguished men of the time, such as Basilius and Gregorius Nazianzenus, were among his pupils. The emperor Julian, who likewise heard him, probably during his visit at Athens in A. D. 355 and 356 (Eunap. Himer.; Liban. Orat. x. p. 267, ed. Morel.; Zosimus, Hist. Eccles. 3.2), conceived so great an admiration for Himerius, that soon after he invited him to his court at Antioch, A. D. 362, and made him his secretary. (Tzetz. Chil. 6.128.) Himerius did not return to Athens till after the death of his rival, Proaeresius (A. D. 368), although the emperor Julian had fallen five years before, A. D. 363. He there took his former position again, and distinguished himself both by his instruction and his oratory. He lived to an advanced age, but the latter years were not free from calamities, for he lost his only promising son, Rufinus, and was blind during the last period of his li
at none of the more ancient MSS. present us with the name of Mamertinus, but usually state that it is by the same author as the preceding, a conclusion fully warranted by the general tone, as well as by some peculiarities of expression, and indeed there seems to be in 100.5 a distinct allusion to the former discourse. Mamertini pro Consulatu Gratiarum Actio Juliano Augusto The tenth piece in the collection is inscribed, Mamertini pro Consulatu Gratiarum Actio Juliano Augusto, belongs to A. D. 362, and was delivered at Constantinople, soon after the accession of Julian, by Claudius Mamertinus, consul for the year, who had previously held the offices of praefect of the Aerarium and praefect of Illyricum, manifestly a different person from the Claudius Mamertinus of the first two orations, if we admit the existence of an individual bearing that appellation as their author. Further Information See the dissertations prefixed to the edition of the Panegyrici Veteres, by Schwarzius, 4t
immediate and extensive schism: the orthodox party broke off from the communion of the Arians, and met in the church of the Apostles, in what was called the old town of Antioch. There had been a previous secession of the more zealous part of the orthodox on occasion of the deposition of Eustathius (A. D. 331),butthetwo seceding bodies remained separate, the Eustathians objecting that Meletius had been ordained by Arians. On the accession of the emperor Julian Meletius returned to Antioch (A. D. 362), and the most earnest endeavours were made to reconcile the two sections of the orthodox party: but though the death of Eustathius seemed to present a fair opportunity for such reconciliation, all the efforts made were frustrated by the intemperate zeal of Lucifer of Cagliari [LUCIFER], who ordained Paulinus bishop of the Eustathians. Meanwhile, Arians appear to have retained possession of most of the churches, the orthodox having one or two assigned for their use, of which, however, on t
. and the murder of George of Cappadocia, the Arian patriarch [GEORGIUS, No. 7], assembled a council at Alexandria, Paulinus sent two deacons, Maximus and Calimerus, to take part in its deliberation. He was shortly after ordained by the hasty and impetuous Lucifer of Cagliari [LUCIFER bishop of the Eustathians at Antioch; a step unwarrantable and mischievous, as it prolonged the schism in the orthodox party, which would otherwise probably have been soon healed. His ordination took place in A. D. 362. He was held, according to Socrates (H. E. 4.2) and Sozomen (H. E. 6.7), in such respect by the Arian emperor Valens as to be allowed to remain when his competitor Meletius [MELETIUS] was banished. Possibly, however, the smallness of his party, which seems to have occupied only one small church (Socrat. H. E. 3.99; Sozom. 5.13), rendered him less obnoxious to the Arians, and they may have wished to perpetuate the division of the orthodox by exciting jealousy. Paulinus's refusal of the prop
he was highly esteemed, and having written or delivered a eulogy on the city, was honoured in return with a life-size statue of bronze, bearing this inscription, "The Queen of Cities to the Prince of Eloquence." On his departure from Rome, he obtained for Athens a tributary supply of provisions from several islands -- a grant which was confirmed by the eparch of Athens at the solicitation of Anatolius--and he himself was honoured with the title of stratopeda/rxhs. When the emperor Julian (A. D. 362) had promulgated the decree, for which he is so strongly censured, even by his eulogist Ammianus Marcellinus (20.10, 25.4), forbidding teachers belonging to the Christian religion to practise their art, we are told (Hieron. in Chronic.. An. 2378), that Proaeresius was expressly exempted from its operation, but that he refused any immunity not enjoyed by his brethren. To this partial suspension of his rhetorical functions, Eunapius also alludes, but, distracted by his love of the man, and h
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
also the name of Flavius, which was common to all the emperors after Constantine. His first wife was Valeria Severa, by whom he became the father of the emperor Gratianus. Valentinian entered the army when young, and showed military talents; but the emperor Constantinus for some reason or other deprived him of his rank A. D. 357. Under Julian he held the office of tribune of the guard, or of the Scutarii, as Orosius terms the body (7.32), and in this capacity he was with Julian at Antioch, A. D. 362, and accompanied him to a heathen temple. Julian, it is said, commanded him to sacrifice to the idol, or resign his office; but Valentinian, who had been baptized in the Christian faith, refused. According to most of the historians, Valentinian was exiled for his adherence to his religion. Jovian succeeded Julian A. D. 363, and Lucilianus, the father-in-law of Valentinian, took him with him to Gaul. Lucilianus lost his life in a disturbance at Rheims, and Valentinan only saved himself by