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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 15 15 Browse Search
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Aca'cius 2. A Syrian by birth, lived in a monastery near Antioch, and, for his active defence of the Church against Arianism, was made Bishop of Berrhoea, A. D. 378, by St. Eusebius of Samosata. While a priest, he (with Paul, another priest) wrote to St. Epiphanius a letter, in consequence of which the latter composed his Panarium. (A. D. 374-6). This letter is prefixed to the work. In A. D. 377-8, he was sent to Rome to confute Apollinaris before Pope St. Damasus. He was present at the Oecumenical Council of Constantinople A. D. 381, and on the death of St. Meletius took part in Flavian's ordination to the See of Antioch, by whom he was afterwards sent to the Pope in order to heal the schism between the churches of the West and Antioch. Afterwards, he took part in the persecution against St. Chrysostom (Socrates, Hist. Eccl. 6.18), and again compromised himself by ordaining as successor to Flavian, Porphyrius, a man unworthy of the episcopate. He defended the heretic Nestorius again
ciples of Pambo, the monk of Mt. Nitria (Vitae Patrum, 2.23; Pallad. Hist. Laus. 100.12, ed. Rosweyd. p. 543.) He knew the Bible by heart, and carefully studied Didymus, Origen, and the other ecclesiastical authors. In A. D. 339-341 he accompanied St. Athanasius to Rome. In A. D. 371-3, Peter II. succeeded the latter, and when he fled to Rome from his Arian persecutors, Ammonius retired from Canopus into Palestine. He witnessed the cruelties of the Saracens against the monks of Mount Sinai A. D. 377, and received intelligence of the sufferings of others near the Red Sea. On his return to Egypt, he took up his abode at Memphis, and described these distresses in a book which he wrote in Egyptian. This being found at Naucratis by a priest, named John, was by him translated into Greek, and in that form is extant, in Christi Martyrum Electi triumphi (p. 88, ed. Combefis, 8vo., Par. 1660). Ammonius is said to have cut off an ear to avoid promotion to the episcopate. (Socr. 4.23; Pallad. His
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ia, or Pisidia, A. D. 373-4. St. Basil's Congratulatory Epistle on the occasion is extant. (Ep. 393, al. 161, vol. iii. p. 251, ed. Bened.) He soon after paid St. Basil a visit, and persuaded him to undertake his work "On the Holy Ghost" (vol. iii. p. 1), which he finished A. D. 375-6. St. Basil's Canonical Epistles are addressed to St. Amphilochius (l.c. pp. 268, 290, 324, written A. D. 374, 375). The latter had received St. Basil's promised book on the Divinity of the Holy Ghost, when in A. D. 377 he sent a synodical letter (extant, ap. Mansi's Concilia. vol. iii. p. 505) to certain bishops, probably of Lycia, infected with, or in danger of, Macedonianism. The Arian persecution of the church ceased on the death of Valens (A. D. 378), and in 381, Amphilochius was present at the Oecumenical Council of Constantinople. While there, he signed, as a witness, St. Gregory Nazianzen's will (Opp. S. Greg. p. 204a., B.), and he was nominated with Optimus of Antioch in Pisidia as the centre of
-A. D. 232. Ardashir or Artaxerxes, the first Sassanid of Persia.--A. D. 259. Dertad or Tiridates II., surnamed Medz, the son of Chosroes, established by the Romans.--A. D. 314. Interregnum. Sanadrug seizes northern Armenia, and Pagur southern Armenia, but only for a short time.--A. D. 316. Chosroes or Khosrew II., surnamed P'hok'hr, or " the Little," the son of Tiridates Mezd.--A. D. 325. Diran or Tiranus I., his son.--A. D. 341. Arsaces or Arshag III., his son. --A. D. 370. Bab or Para.--A. D. 377. Waraztad, usurper.--A. D. 382. Arsaces IV. (and Valarsaces or Wagharshag II., his brother).--A. D. 387. Armenia divided.--A. D. 389. Arsaces IV. dies. Cazavon in Roman Armenia, Chosroes or Khosrew III. in Persarmenia.--A. D. 392. Bahram Shapur (Sapor), the brother of Chosroes III.--A. D. 414. Chosroes re-established by Yezdegerd.--A. D. 415. Shapur or Sapor, the son of Yezdegerd--A. D. 419. Interregnum.--A. D. 422. Ardashes or Ardashir (Artasires) IV.--A. D. 428. End of the kingdom of Ar
tatus, not without fresh bloodshed. While these angry passions were still raging, Damasus was impeached of impurity before a public council, and was honourably acquitted, while his calumniators, the deacons Concordius and Calistus, were deprived of their sacred office. During the remainder of his career, until his death in A. D. 384, he was occupied in waging war against the remnants of the Arians in the West and in the East, in denouncing the heresy of Apollinaris in the Roman councils of A. D. 377 and 382, in advocating the cause of Paulinus against Meletius, and in erecting two basilicae. He is celebrated in the history of sacred music from having ordained that the psalms should be regularly chaunted in all places of public worship by day and by night, concluding in each case with the doxology; but his chief claim to the gratitude of posterity rests upon the circumstance, that, at his instigation, St. Jerome, with whom he maintained a most steady and cordial friendship, was first i
from an obscure passage in Themistius (Orat. xvi. De Saturnino), that she was the daughter of Antonius, who was consul A. D. 382, but this is very doubtful. She appears to have been born in Spain (Claudian, Laus Serenae, vs. 69), and to have had a sister, the mother of Nebridius, who was married after A. D. 388 to Salvina, daughter of Gildo, the Moor. (Hieron. Epist.ad Salvin. vol. iv. p. 663, ed. Benedict.) Flaccilla had at least three children by Theodosius,--namely, Arcadius, born about A. D. 377, Honorius, born A. D. 384, both afterwards emperors; and Pulcheria, who was apparently born before 379, as Claudian (Laus Seren. 113, 136) intimates that Theodosius had more than one child when raised to the throne. This Pulcheria died before her mother, and Gregory Nyssen composed a consolatory discourse upon the occasion. Some have supposed that she had another child, Gratian, but without reason. (Ambros. De Obitu Theodos. Oratio, where see note of the Benedictine editors.) Flaccillahers
n of Constantine the Great, A. D. 357-61. It is probable that this is the proconsul Flavian, to whole some of the rhetorical exercises of the sophist Himerius are addressed; though Fabricius supposes the Flavian of Himerius to be No. 7. (Cod. Theod. 8. tit. 5. s. 10, 11. tit. 36. s. 14, 15. tit. 1. s. 1; Gothofred. Prosop. Cod. Theod.; Himerius, ap. Phot. Bibl. Cod. 165, 243, pp. 108, 376, ed. Bekker; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 57.) Flavia'nus 5. Vicarius of Africa, under Gratian, A. D. 377. He was one of those commissioned to inquire into the malpractices of Count Romanus and his confederates ; and Ammianus Marcellinus records the uprightness of his conduct in the business. It is probable that he is the Flavian mentioned by Augustin as an adherent of the sect of the Donatists, by whom, however, he was excommunicated, because, in the discharge of his office, he had punished some criminals capitally. An inscription, belonging to a statue at Rome, "Virius Nicomachus, Consularis
Flavia'nus 5. Vicarius of Africa, under Gratian, A. D. 377. He was one of those commissioned to inquire into the malpractices of Count Romanus and his confederates ; and Ammianus Marcellinus records the uprightness of his conduct in the business. It is probable that he is the Flavian mentioned by Augustin as an adherent of the sect of the Donatists, by whom, however, he was excommunicated, because, in the discharge of his office, he had punished some criminals capitally. An inscription, belonging to a statue at Rome, "Virius Nicomachus, Consularis Siciliae, Vicarius Africae, Quaestor intra Palatium; Praef. Praetor iterum et Cos.," is by Gothofredus referred to this Flavian, but we rather refer it to No. 6. Gothofredus also regards this Flavian as the person mentioned by Himerius ; but the mention of his administration of Africa equally well suits No. 4, to whom the title a)nqu/patos determines the reference. (Amm. Marc. 28.6; Augustin. ad Emeritum, Epist. 164 (or 87, ed. Paris, 1836)
Grego'rius 2. Praefectus Annonae under Gratian, A. D. 377. Gothofred is disposed to identify him with the Gregory to whom Symmachus wrote several of his letters, and who had borne the office of quaestor. (Cod. Theod. 14. tit. 3. s. 15; Gothofred. Prosopog. Cod. Theodos. ; Tillemont, Hist. des Emp. vol. v. p. 147.)
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Hiero'nymus or St. Jerome (search)
Hiero'nymus or St. Jerome commonly known as SAINT JEROME: EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS was a native of Stridon, a town upon the confines of Dalmatia and Pannonia, which having been utterly destroyed by the Goths in A. D. 377, its site cannot now be determined. His parents were both Christian, living, it would appear, in easy circumstances. The period of his birth is a matter of considerable doubt. Prosper Aquitanicus, in his chronicle, fixes upon the year A. D. 331; Dupin brings down the event as low as 345 ; while other writers have decided in favour of various intermediate epochs. That the first of the above dates is too early seems certain, for Jerome, in the commentary upon Habbakuk (100.3), speaks of himself as having been still occupied with grammatical studies at the death of Julian the apostate ; but since this took place in 363, he must, according to the statement of Prosper, have been at that time thirty-two years old, while the calculation adopted by Du Pin would make hi
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