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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 23 23 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 15. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 381 AD or search for 381 AD in all documents.

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d in a monastery near Antioch, and, for his active defence of the Church against Arianism, was made Bishop of Berrhoea, A. D. 378, by St. Eusebius of Samosata. While a priest, he (with Paul, another priest) wrote to St. Epiphanius a letter, in consequence of which the latter composed his Panarium. (A. D. 374-6). This letter is prefixed to the work. In A. D. 377-8, he was sent to Rome to confute Apollinaris before Pope St. Damasus. He was present at the Oecumenical Council of Constantinople A. D. 381, and on the death of St. Meletius took part in Flavian's ordination to the See of Antioch, by whom he was afterwards sent to the Pope in order to heal the schism between the churches of the West and Antioch. Afterwards, he took part in the persecution against St. Chrysostom (Socrates, Hist. Eccl. 6.18), and again compromised himself by ordaining as successor to Flavian, Porphyrius, a man unworthy of the episcopate. He defended the heretic Nestorius against St. Cyril, though not himself pre
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or St. Chryso'stomus (search)
is given in proportion to our own wish to receive it. Libanius taught him eloquence, and said, that he should have desired to see him his successor in his school, if the Christians had not stolen him. Before his ordination, he retired first to a monastery near Antioch, and afterwards to a solitary cavern, where he committed the whole of the Bible to memory. In this cavern he so injured his health that he was obliged to return to Antioch, where he was ordained deacon by the bishop Meletius, A. D. 381, who had previously baptized him, and afterwards presbyter by Flavianus, successor to Meletius, A. D. 386. At Antioch his success as a preacher was so great, that on the death of Nectarius, archbishop of Constantinople, he was chosen to succeed him by Eutropius, minister to the emperor Arcadius, and the selection was readily ratified by the clergy and people of the imperial city, A. D. 397. The minister who appointed him was a eunuch of infamous profligacy, and Chrysostom was very soon obl
wrote several works, which shewed that he was a man of extensive acquirements. When Meletius, the bishop of Antioch, was sent into exile in the reign of the emperor Valens, Diodorus too had to suffer for a time; but he continued to exert himself in what he thought the good cause, and frequently preached to his flock in the open fields in the neighbourhood of Antioch. In A. D. 378 Meletius was allowed to return to his see, and one of his first acts was to make Diodorus bishop of Tarsus. In A. D. 381 Diodorus attended the council of Constantinople, at which the general superintendence of the Eastern churches was entrusted to him and Pelagius of Laodiceia. (Socrat. 5.8.) How long he held his bishopric, and in what year he died, are questions which cannot be answered with certainty, though his death appears to have occurred previous to A. D. 394, in which year his successor, Phalereus, was present at a council at Constantinople. Diodorus was a man of great learning (Facund. 4.2); but som
s, which afterwards became universal in the church. Flavian was ordained priest by Meletius, who was elected bishop of Antioch, A. D. 361, and held the see, with three intervals of exile, chiefly occasioned by his opposition to Arianism, till A. D. 381. His first expulsion, which was soon after his election, induced Flavian and others to withdraw from the communion of the church, over which Euzoius, an Arian, had been appointed. The seceders still recognised the deposed prelate; and the churcment, and agree to recognise the survivor of the present claimants. Flavian was one of the parties to this agreement: but many of the Eustathians refused to sanction it; so that when Meletius died, while attending the Council of Constantinople, A. D. 381, Flavian, who was also attending the Council, and was elected to succeed him, with the general approval of the Asiatic churches, felt himself at liberty to accept the appointment. The imputation of perjury, to which Flavian thus subjected him
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Geo'rgius ARISTINUS (search)
Geo'rgius ARISTINUS 6. ARISTINUS, an historian. Joseph, bishop of Modon (who flourished about A. D. 1440), in his defence of the council of Florence, in reply to Mark of Ephesus, cites Georgius Aristinus as an authority for the statement, that the addition of he words "filioque" to the Nicene creed had been made shortly after the second oecumenical council (that of Constantinople. A. D. 381 ), in the time of Pope Damasus. (Allatius. Diatrib. de Gorg. apud Fabr. Bibl. Gr. vol. xii. p. 21.)
, and purify himself by penitence or penance. Gerontius, instead of obeying, went to Constantinople, and being a man of winning address, made friends at the court there, and obtained by their means the bishoprick of Nicomedeia, to which he was ordained by Helladius, bishop of Caesareia in Cappadocia, for whose son he had, by his interest, procured a high military appointment at court. Ambrose, hearing of his appointment, wrote to Nectarius, bishop of Constantinople (who held that see front A. D. 381 to 397) to depose Gerontius, and so prevent the continuance of so glaring a violation of all ecclesiastical order. Nectarius, however, could effect nothing; but when Chrysostom, two years after his accession to the patriarchate, visited the Asiatic part of his province (A. D. 399), Gerontius was deposed. The people of Nicomedeia, to whom his kindness and attention, shown alike to rich and poor, and the benefits of his medical skill, for which he was eminent, had endeared him, refused to ac
Hella'dius 4. Bishop of Caesareia, in Cappadocia, succeeded his master, Basil the Great, in that see. A. D. 378, and was present at the two councils of Constantinople in A. D. 381 and 394. Works Life of St. Basil His life of St. Basil is quoted by Damascenus (Orat. de Imag. i. p. 327), but the genuineness of the work is doubtful. Further Information Sozom. H. E. 8.6; Tillemont, Mém. Eccles. vol. ix. p. 589; Cave, Hist. Lit. s. a. 378; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ix. p. 293
ted of adultery; but in reality to gratify Constantius, who was irritated against him, and perhaps also because he would not adopt their views. Though expelled from Constantinople he was not disposed to remain quiet, but sought to unite himself more closely with the semi-Arians, in opposition to the Acacians. [ACACIUS, No. 3.] He appears to have resided in the neighbourhood of Constantinople till his death, of the date of which there is no account. Facundus asserts that he was summoned in A. D. 381 before the second oecumenical, or first council of Constantinople, at which his obnoxious tenets respecting the Holy Spirit were condemned; but this is probably a mistake, and it appears likely that he did not long survive his deposition. Macedonius is known chiefly as the leader of a sect which took its name front him. The term "Macedonians " (oi( *Makedonianoi/) is applied somewhat indeterminately in the ancient ecclesiastical writers. Its first application was to the less heterodox di
ry of Nazianzus, and the predecessor of John Chrysostom, as bishop of Constantinople. His occupancy of the episcopal chair between two such men would have required extraordinary merit to make him conspicuous. But, in truth, though he does not seem to merit the epithet applied to him by Gibbon, " the indolent Nectarius," the fact of his having been appointed at all is the most remarkable thing in his personal history. When Gregory, as has been related [Vol. II. p. 313], resigned his office, A. D. 381, it was during the meeting of the second oecumenical council at Constantinople. Nectarius, a senator, and a man of the highest family, was a native of Tarsus. The ecclesiastical historians relate that, at this time, he intended to visit his native place, and previously waited on Diodorus, the bishop of Tarsus, who was in Constantinople attending the council. Diodorus, along with the other bishops, was perplexed as to whom they should nominate to the vacant see. Struck by the majestic appea
his party, which seems to have occupied only one small church (Socrat. H. E. 3.99; Sozom. 5.13), rendered him less obnoxious to the Arians, and they may have wished to perpetuate the division of the orthodox by exciting jealousy. Paulinus's refusal of the proposal of Meletius to put an end to the schism is mentioned elsewhere [MELETIUS, No. 1]; but he at length consented that whichever of them died first, the survivor should be recognized by both parties. On the death of Meletius, however (A. D. 381), this agreement was not observed by his party, and the election of Flavian [FLAVIANUS, No. 1] disappointed the hopes of Paulinus, and embittered the schism still more. In A. D. 382 Paulinus was present at a council of the Western Church, which had all along recognised his title, and now ardently supported his cause; but the Oriental churches generally recognised Flavian, who was de facto bishop of Antioch. Paulinus died A. D. 388 or 389. His partizans chose Evagrius to succeed him [EVAGRI
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