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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 17 17 Browse Search
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Aca'cius 5. Reader at (A. D. 390), then the Bishop of Melitene (A. D. 431). He wrote A. D. 431, against Nestorius. His zeal led him to use expressions, apparently savouring of the contrary heresy, which, for a time, prejudiced the emperor Theodosius II. against St. Cyril. He was present at the Oecumenical Council of Ephesus A. D. 431, and constantly maintained its authority. There remain of his productions a Homily (in Greek) delivered at the Council, (see Conciliorum Nova Collectio à Mansi, vol. v. p. 181,) and a letter written after it to St. Cyril, which we have in a Latin translation. (Ibid. pp. 860, 998.) [A.J.C
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or St. Chryso'stomus (search)
das, he had illustrated the whole of the Bible, though some of them afterwards perished in a fire at Constantinople. 3. Epistles addressed to a great number of different persons. 4. Treatises on various subjects, e. g. the Priesthood (six books), Providence (three books), &c. 5. Liturgies. Of the homilies, those on St. Paul are superior to anything in ancient theology, and Thomas Aquinas said, that he would not accept the whole city of Paris for those on St. Matthew, delivered at Antioch, A. D. 390-397. The letters written in exile have been compared to those of Cicero composed under similar circumstances; but in freedom from vanity and selfishness, and in calmness and resignation, Chrysostom's epistles are infinitely superior to Cicero's. Among the collection of letters is one from the emperor Honorius to his brother Arcadius in defence of Chrysostom, found in the Vatican, and published by Baronius and afterwards by Montfaucon. Assessment The merits of Chrysostom as an expositor
in the Almagest (in which it must have appeared if he had been acquainted with it), but introduces the subject for the first time in his Optics. The same writer also endeavours to shew, from the longitude assigned by Cleomedes (p. 59) to the star Aldebaran, that he could not have written earlier than A. D. 186. Riccioli (Almag. Nov. vol. i. pp. xxxii. and 307) supposes, that the Cleomedes who wrote the Circular Theory lived a little after Poseidonius, and that another Cleomedes lived about A. D. 390. A treatise on Arithametic and another on the Sphere, attributed to a Cleomedes, are said to exist in MS. Vossius (de Nat. Art. p. 180b.) conject tures that Cleomedes wrote the work on Harmonics attributed to Cleonides or Euclid. [EUCLEIDES.]GRC 2008-06-9: I moved the section on the life of Cleomedes to the start of the article to conform to the more general pattern in Smith's. Works A Greek treatise in two books on the Circular Theory of the Heavenly Bodies (*Kuklikh=s *Qewri/as *Me
Sidonius Apollinaris, from the first of which we learn, that this collection of epistles was made at his suggestion and submitted to his criticism and correction. Constantius, at the request of Patiens, bishop of Lyons, drew up a biography of Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, who died in A. D. 448. This work, entitled Vita S. Germani Episcopi Autissiodorensis, appears from the second dedication to have been completed about A. D. 488, and is contained in the compilations of Surius and of the Bollandists under the Saints of July. It was rendered into verse by Ericus, a Benedictine monk of Auxerre, who lived about A. D. 989, and translated into French by Arnauld d'Andilly. Some persons have ascribed to Constantins the "Vita S. Justi Lugdunensis Episcopi," who died in A. D. 390, but there is no evidence that he was the author. This performance also will be found in Surius under September 2nd, and has been translated into French by Le Maitre de Sacy in his " Vies des Pères du Désert." [W.
Gildo, who had managed to escape to the sea, was driven by contrary winds into the harbour of Tabraca, and being taken and imprisoned, put an end to his own life by hanging himself (A. D. 398). If any confidence may be placed in the representations of Clandian, Gildo was a tyrant detestable alike for cruelty, lust, and avarice: the poet describes him as worn out with age at the time of his revolt. He was a Pagan, but his wife and his daughter Salvina (who had been married somewhere about A. D. 390 to Nebridius, nephew of Flacilla [FLACILLA], first wife of the emperor Theodosius the Great, and had been left a widow with two children,) were ladies of approved piety, as was also Cyria, sister of Gildo, who had devoted herself to a life of perpetual virginity. Mascezel did not long survive his brother. He was received by Stilicho on his return with apparent honour and real jealousy, and while crossing a bridge, apparently at Milan, among the retinue of Stilicho, was, by his order, sho
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Hiero'nymus or St. Jerome (search)
pting any regular classification. 1. Vita S. Pauliprimi Eremitae, Vita S. Pauliprimi Eremitae, who at the age of sixteen fled to the deserts of the Thebaid to avoid the persecutions of Decius and Valerian, and lived in solitude for ninety-eight years. Written about A. D. 375, while Jerome was in the desert of Chalcis. (Ed. Bened. vol. iv. p. ii. p. 68.) 2. Vita S. Hilarionis Eremitae, Vita S. Hilarionis Eremitae, a monk of Palestine, a disciple of the great St. Anthony. Written about A. D. 390. (Ed. Bened. vol. iv. p. ii. p. 74.) 3. Vita Malchi Monachi captivi. Vita Malchi Monachi captivi. Belonging to the same period as the preceding. A certain Sophronius, commemorated in the De Viris Illustribus (100.134) wrote a Greek translation, now lost, of the lives of St. Hilario and St. Malchus, a strong proof of the estimation in which the biographies were held at the time they were composed. (Ed. Bened. vol. iv. p. ii. p. 90.) 4. Regula S. Pachomii, Regula S. Pachomii, the found
even by the credulity of Rufinus and Palladius, who have recorded it only as a report. During the persecution which the orthodox suffered from Lucius, the Arian patriarch of Alexandria [LUCIUS, No. 2] during the reign of the emperor Valens, Macarius was banished, together with his namesake of Alexandria and other Egyptian solitaries, to an island surrounded by marshes and inhabited only by heathens. He died at the age of ninety; and as critics are generally agreed in placing his death in A. D. 390 or 391, he must have been born about the beginning of the fourth century, and have retired to the wilderness about A. D. 330. He is canonized both by the Greek and Latin churches; his memory is celebrated by the former on the 19th, by the latter on the 15th January. (Socrat. H. E. 4.23, 24; Sozomen, H. E. 3.14, 6.20; Theodoret, H. E. 4.21; Rufin. H. E. 2.4; and apud Heribert Rosweyd, De Vita et Verbis Senior. 2.28; Apophthegmata Patrum, apud Coteler. Eccles. Graec. Monum. vol. i. p. 524, &
100.4, Meurs., 2, Bibl. Pair.) He remained for a short time in the neighbourhood of Alexandria, and then resided for a year among the solitaries in the mountains of the desert of Nitria, who amounted to five thousand (100.9, Meurs., 6, Bibl. Patr.), of whose place of abode and manner of life he gives a description (ibid.). From Nitria he proceeded further into the wilderness, to the district of the cells, where he arrived the year after the death of Macarius the Egyptian, which occurred in A. D. 390 or 391. [MACARIUS, No. 1.] Here he remained nine years, three of which he spent as the companion of Macarius the younger, the Alexandrian [MACARIUS, No. 2], and was for a time the companion and disciple of Evagrius of Pontus [EVAGRIUS, No. 4], who was charged with entertaining Origenistic opinions. [ORIGENES.] How long he remained with Evagrius is not known (100.21, 22, 29, Meurs., 100.19, 20, 29, Bibl. Patr.). But he did not confine himself to one spot: he visited cities, or villages, or
f Aquitania, in Gaul, now Eause in Gascony. Although of low birth, he succeeded in working his way up to the imperial court, and early attached himself to the fortune of Theodosius, with whom he became a great favourite. He employed his ascendancy over the emperor to abuse his confidence, and Theodosius seemed to have been struck with a blindness which prevented him from seeing the odious vices and public crimes of this dangerous mall. At the time of the great troubles at Thessalonica, in A. D. 390, Rufinus held the important post of magister officiorum, and having great influence in the imperial cabinet, excited the vindictive Theodosius to those cruel measures which brought ruin upon that flourishing city. In 392 Rufinus was consul, and raised himself to the dignity of praefectus praetorio by deposing the then prefect Tatianus, sending him into exile, and putting to death his son Proculus, the praefect of Constantinople. In consequence of these proceedings, and his boundless rapaci
d he was decidedly no son of Sapor. The peace of 363 being strictly kept by the Romans, he had no pretext for making war upon them, if he felt inclined to do so, and we pass on to Shapur Iii. 11. SHAPUR or SAPOR III., who reigned from A. D. 385-390. According to Agathias (iv. p. 136, ed. Paris) he was the son of Sapor the Great; but according to the Persian historians, who, in matters of genealogy, deserve full credit, he was the son of one Shapur Zulaktaf, a royal prince. Shapur was anxious Greek embassy headed by Stilicho going to Persia. Owing to these diplomatic transactions, an arrangement was made in 384, according to which Armenia and Iberia recovered their independence. Bahram Iv. 12. BAHRAM or VARANES IV., reigned from A. D. 390-404, or perhaps not so long. He was the brother of Sapor III., and founded Kermanshah, still a flourishing town. This is recorded in an inscription on a monument near Kermanshah, which has been copied by European travellers, and translated by S
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