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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 14 14 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 404 AD or search for 404 AD in all documents.

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r the younger. She was a woman of high spirit, and exercised great influence over her husband: to her persuasion his giving up of the eunuch Eutropius into the power of his enemies may be ascribed. She was involved in a fierce contest with Chrysostom, who fearlessly inveighed against the avarice and luxury of the court, and scrupled not to attack the empress herself. The particulars of the struggle are given elsewhere. [CHRYSOSTOMUS, JOANNES.] She died of a miscarriage in the sixth consulship of Honorius, A. D. 404, or, according to Theophanes, A. D. 406. The date of her death is carefully discussed by Tillemont. (Histoire des Empereurs, vol. v. p. 785.) Cedrenus narrates some curious particulars of her death, but their credibility is very doubtful. (Philostorgius, Hist. Eccles. apud Photium ; Marcellinus, (Chronicon ; Socrates, Hist. Eccles. 6.18; Cassiodor. Hist. Tripart. 10.20; Theophanes, Chronographia ad A. M. 5892, 97, 98, Alex. era; Cedrenus, Compend. vol. i. p. 585, ed. Bonn.)
sequent editions we may mention those of H. Commelinus (Frankfurt, 1596, 8vo.) and Paul Stephens. (Geneva, 1616, 8vo.) The best, however, which gives a much improved text, with a commentary and notes by Wyttenbach, is that of J. F. Boissonade, Amsterdam, 1822, 2 vols. 8vo. 2. A continuation of the history of Dexippus (*Meta\ *De/cippon xronikh\ i(stori/a) In fourteen books. (Phot. Bibl. Cod. 77.) It began with the death of Claudius Gothicus, in A. D. 270, and carried the history down to A. D. 404, in which year St. Chrysostom was sent into exile, and which was the tenth year of the reign of Arcadius. This account of Photius (l.c.) seems to be contradicted by a passage of the excerpta (p. 96, ed. Bekker and Niebuhr), in which Eunapius speaks of the avarice of the empress Pulcheria, who did not obtain that dignity till A. D. 414; but the context of that passage shews that it was only a digression in the work, and that the work itself did not extend to A. D. 414. It was written at the
y sister, who was at the point of death; and used such diligence as to reach Constantinople before the authentic tidings of the disturbance. Ecclesiastical writers ascribe the pardon of the citizens very much to his intercession, but Zosimus, in his brief notice of the affair, does not mention him. Flavian was held in much respect, both during and after his life. Chrysostom, his pupil and friend, speaks of him in the highest terms. Theodore of Mopsuestia was also his pupil. Flavian died, A. D. 404, not long after the deposition of Chrysostom, to which he was much opposed, but which was sanctioned by his successor in the see of Antioch. Of his writings only some quotations remain ; they are apparently from his sermons, and are preserved in the Eranistes of Theodoret. Photius mentions his Letters to the Bishops of Osroene and to a certain Armenian Bishop, respecting the rejection, by a synod over which Flavian presided, of Adelphius, a heretic, who desired to be reconciled to the ch
Hercu'lius (*(Erkou/lios), praefectus praetorio Illyrici, A. D. 408-412, is probably the Herculius to whom one of the letters of Chrysostom is addressed. It is in answer to a letter from Herculius to Chrysostom, and expresses Chrysostom's appreciation of the affection of Herculius for him, which was "known by all the city," i. e. of Constantinople. The letter was written during Chrysostom's exile, A. D. 404-407. (Chrysostom, Opera, vol. iii. p. 859, ed. Paris, 1834, &c.; Cod. Theod. 11. tit. 17.4; tit. 22.5; 12. tit. 1.172; 15. tit. 1.49.) [J.C.
pired to the hand of Placidia, and who attacked the Visi-Goths, drove them out of Narbonne, which they had taken, and compelled them to retire into Spain, where Ataulphus was soon after assassinated (A. D. 415). Attalus was afterwards taken; and Honorius, whose natural clemency was not now counteracted by his fears, contented himself with banishing him. For other offenders a general amnesty was issued. We have omitted during these stirring events to notice the consulships of Honorius since A. D. 404. He was consul in A. D. 407, 409, 411, or rather 412, 415 and 417. Ravenna was his almost constant residence, except in 407 and 408. The year 417 was distinguished by the marriage of Constantius (who was colleague of Honorius in the consulship) with Placidia, who, after the death of Ataulphus, had suffered much ill usage from his murderer, but had been restored by Valia or Wallia, the successor (not immediately) of Ataulphus ; and the year 418 (when Honorius was consul for the twelfth t
1125), with whom Augnustin also remonstrated (Epistola, 252, ed. vett., 179, ed. Caillau, Paris, 1842) on the favour which he showed to Pelagius. Augustin's letter is, however, respectful and courteous, and he has elsewhere recognised Joannes as connected with himself in the unity of the faith (Contra Litt. Petilliani, 2.117). In the struggle of Joannes of Constantinople, better kuown as Chrysostom, against his enemies, Joannes of Jerusalem had taken his part, and Chrysostom in his exile (A. D. 404) acknowledged his kindness in a letter still extant (Chrysostom, Epist. 88, Opera, vol. iii. p. 640, ed. Bened. lma. p. 771, ed. 2da. Paris, 1838). Joannes died A. D. 416 or 417. (Hieronymus, Epistolae, 60, 61, 62. ed. Vet. 39, 110, ed. Benedictin. 51, 82, and Liber Contra Joan. Ierosolymit. ed. Vallarsi, to which the references in the course of the article have been made; Chrysostom. Augustin. ll. cc.; Socrates, H. E. 5.15; Sozomen. H. E. 7.14; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. xii. passim; Cave,
m as in company with the other Macarius (No. 1) and with St. Antony. Many miracles are ascribed to him. most of which are recorded by Palladius either as leaving been seen by himself, or as resting on the authority of the saint's former companions, but they are frivolous and absurd. Macarius shared the exile of his namesake [No. 1] in the persecution which the Arians carried on against the orthodox. He died, according to Tillemont's calculation, in A. D. 394, but according to Fabricius, in A. D. 404, at the age of 100, in which case he must have been nearly as old as Macarius the Egyptian. He is commemorated in the Roman Calendar on the 2d January, and by the Greeks on the 19th January. Socrates describes him as characterized by cheerfulness of temper and kindness to his juniors, qualities which induced many of them to embrace an ascetic life. Further Information Socrat. H. E. 4.23, 24; Sozom. H. E. 3.14, 6.20; Theodoret. H. E. 4.21; Rufin. H. E. 2.4; and apud Heribert Rosweyd, De
Nica'rete (*Nikare/th), St., a lady of good family and fortune, born at Nicomedeia in Bithynia, renowned for her piety and benevolence, and also for the numerous cures which her medical skill enabled her to perform gratuitously. She suffered great hardships during a sort of persecution that was carried on against the followers of St. Chrysostom after his expulsion from Constantinople, A. D. 404. (Sozom. Hist. Eccles. 8.23; Niceph. Callist. List. Eccles. 13.25.) She has been canonized by the Romish Church, and her memory is celebrated on December 27 llarttr. Rom.). Bzovius Noomencl. Sanctor. Profess. 31adic.) and after him C. B. Carpzovius De Medicis ab Eccles. p1ro Sanctis habit.) think it possible that Nicarete may be the lady mentioned by St. Chrysostom, as having restored him to health by her medicines Epist. ad Olymp. 4. vol. ii. p. 571, ed. Bened.), but this conjecture is founded on a faulty reading that is now amended. (See note to the passage referred to.) [W.A.
embassy headed by Stilicho going to Persia. Owing to these diplomatic transactions, an arrangement was made in 384, according to which Armenia and Iberia recovered their independence. Bahram Iv. 12. BAHRAM or VARANES IV., reigned from A. D. 390-404, or perhaps not so long. He was the brother of Sapor III., and founded Kermanshah, still a flourishing town. This is recorded in an inscription on a monument near Kermanshah, which has been copied by European travellers, and translated by Silvestre de Sacy. Yezdijird I. or Yezdijird Ulathim 13. YEZDIJIRD, or JESDIGERD I. (*)Isdige/rdhs), surnamed ULATHIM, or the SINNER, the son or brother of the preceding, reigned from A. D. 404, or earlier, to 420 or 421. He is commonly called Yesdigerd. He stood on friendly terms with the emperor Arcadius, who, it is said, appointed him the guardian of his infant son and successor, Theodosius the Younger. We refer to the life of Arcadius for more information respecting this strange story. Yesdigerd
Bahram Iv. 12. BAHRAM or VARANES IV., reigned from A. D. 390-404, or perhaps not so long. He was the brother of Sapor III., and founded Kermanshah, still a flourishing town. This is recorded in an inscription on a monument near Kermanshah, which has been copied by European travellers, and translated by Silvestre de Sacy.
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