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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ATAULPHUS, ATHAULPHUS, ADAULPHUS (i. e. Atha-ulf, "sworn helper," the same name as that which appears in later history under the form of Adolf or Adolphus), brother of Alaric's wife. (Olympiod. apud Phot. Cod. 80, p. 57a., ed Bekk.) He first appears as conducting a reinforcement of Goths and Huns to aid Alaric in Italy after the tennination of the first siege of Rome. (A. D. 409.) In the same year he was after the second siege raised by the mock emperor Attalus to the office of Count of the Domestics; and on the death of Alaric in 410, he was elected to supply his place as king of the Visigoths. (Jornandes, de Reb. Get. 32.) From this time the accounts of his history vary exceedingly. The only undisputed facts are, that he retired with his nation into the south of Gaul,--that he married Placidia, sister of Honorius,--and that he finally withdrew into Spain, where he was murdered at Barcelona. According to Jornandes (de Reb. Get. 32), he took Rome a second time after Alaric's death,
A'ttalus emperor of the West for one year (A. D. 409, 410), the first raised to that office purely by the influence of barbarians. He was born in Ionia, brought up as a Pagan (Philostorgius, 12.3), and received baptism from an Arian bishop. (Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. 9.9.) Having become senator and praefect of the city at the time of Alaric's second siege of Rome, he was, after the surrender of the place, declared emperor by the Gothic king and his army, in the place of Honorius, and conducted by them in state to Ravenna, where he sent an insulting message to Honorius, commanding him to vacate the throne, amputate his extremities, and retire to a desolate island. (Philostorgius, 12.3.) But the union of pride and folly which he had shewn in the first days of his reign, by proposing to reannex Egypt and the East to the empire (Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. 9.8), and later by adopting measures without Alaric's advice, induced the Gothic chief to depose him on the plain of Ariminum. (Zosimus, 6.6-13.)
Coele'stius the friend, associate, and partisan of Pelagius, whose followers were hence termed indifferently Pelagians or Coelestians, is believed from an expression used by Prosper to have been born in Campania, although others maintain that he was a native of Ireland or of Scotland. He commenced his career as an advocate (auaitorialis scholasticus), but in early life, in consequence perhaps of bodily deformity, became a monk, and in A. D. 409 accompanied Pelagius to Carthage. Here he soon excited the suspicions of the restless ecclesiastics of that province, and was impeached of heresy before the council held in 412. Having been found guilty and excommunicated, he prepared to appeal to Pope Innocent against the sentence; but, feeling probably that success was hopeless before such a judge, refrained from prosecuting the matter farther for the time being, and retired to Ephesus, where he was raised to the rank of presbyter, and passed five years in tranquillity. From thence, about th
eceived, as the reward of that service, the office of Comes Africae. Zosimus says that he succeeded Bathanarius, who had married the sister of Stilicho, and whom Honorius put to death; but Tillemont has noticed that, according to the Chronicon of Prosper Tiro, Joannes or John was Comes Africae A. D. 408, and was killed by the people. If this notice is correct, Heraclian was the successor, not of Bathanarius, but of Joannes. Orosius, indeed, states that Heraclian was not sent to Africa till A. D. 409, after Attalus had assumed the purple. Heraclian rendered good service to Honorius during the invasion of Italy by Alaric, and the usurpation of Attalus. [ALARICUS ; ATTALUS.] He secured the most important posts on the African coast by suitable guards, and laid an embargo on the ships which carried corn from his province to Rome, thereby producing a famine in that city. Attalus, misled by prophecies or jealous of the Visigothic soldiers, who were his chief military support, sent Constans,
Hermericus king of the Suevi, who, in conjunction with the Vandals and Alans, entered Spain, A. D. 409. The Suevi occupied a considerable part of Gallaecia, in the N.W. part of Spain; but the rest of the Gallaecians retained their independence; and, though apparently unsupported by the troops of the empire, carried on an obstinate and desultory warfare with the invaders. In A. D. 419 war broke out between Hermeric and his former allies, the Vandals, who, under their king Gunderic, attacked the Suevi in the mountains of Nervasi or Nerbasis (Tillemont understands the mountains of Biscay, but we rather identify them with the mountains of Gallicia or of Portugal, N. of the Douro); but the Vandals were recalled to their own settlements in Baetica, by the advance of the Roman troops into Spain. In their retreat they had a severe conflict at Bracara (Braga), in which they slew many of the Suevi. In A. D. 431 Hermeric, who had coneluded peace with the independent portion of the Gallaecians,
Honorius sheltered himself in Ravenna, while Alaric besieged Rome (A. D. 408), which was obliged to pay a heavy ransom. During the siege the unhappy Serena, who was in the city, was put to death, on a charge of corresponding with the enemy. In A. D. 409 Rome was again besieged and taken by him, and Attalus proclaimed emperor under his protection. [ALARICUS; ATTALUS.] The court of Honorius was the scene of intrigue; Olympius was supplanted by Jovius, who became praefectus praetorio, but was, in, which he took and plundered. He died soon after; and his brother-in-law, Ataulphus, who succeeded him, retired with his army, after a time, into Gaul (A. D. 412), and Italy was once more left free from invaders. [ATAULPHUS.] While Honorius (A. D. 409) was hard pressed by the Visi-Goths and by the revolt of Alaric, Constantine the usurper, who had established himself in Gaul, proposed to come into Italy professedly to assist him, but probably with the intention of aggrandising his own power.
ricum, under the emperor Honorius, and was promoted to that office by Stilicho, who made use of him in his negotiations with Alaric. In A. D. 608, Jovius was appointed Patricius and Praefectus Praetorio of Italy, in consequence of the fall of the eunuch Olympius, who held the office of prime minister of Honorius. Through his intrigues, Jovius soon became sole master of the administration of the empire, and made great changes among its principal officers. When Rome was besieged by Alaric in A. D. 409, Honorius charged Jovius with arranging a peace. He accordingly went to Rimini for that purpose, and there had an interview with Alaric, with whom he was on friendly terms. Jovius proposed to Heraclius to settle the differences by appointing Alaric commander-in-chief of the Roman armies, and informed Alaric of this step, with which the Gothic king was of course quite satisfied. Honorius, however, declined conferring that important office upon the already too powerful Alaric, and wrote a le
vicinity of this city were the tomb and miracle-working relics of Felix, a confessor and martyr, over which a church had been erected with a few cells for the accommodation of pilgrims. In these Paulinus, withi a small number of followers, took up his abode, conforming in all points to the observances of monastic establishments, except that his wife appears to have been his companion. After nearly fifteen years passed in holy meditations and acts of charity, he was chosen bishop of Nola in A. D. 409 (or according to Pagi, A. D. 403), and when the stormy inroad of the Goths had passed away, discharged the duties of the office in peace until his death, which took place in >A. D. 431. The above sketch contains a narrative of all the facts which can be ascertained with regard to this father, but to what extent these may be eked out by laborious conjecture will be seen upon referring to biography compiled by Le Brun. The story told in the dialogues of St. Gregory, that Paulinus having gi
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
al in his "Epigrammata et Poemata Vett.," &c. (Paris, 1590), as Carmen Severi Sancti, id est, Endeilichi Rhetoris, de Mortibus Boum ; and, since that period, scholars, according to their conviction, have adopted one or other, or both of these titles. From the internal evidence afforded by the piece itself, we are led to conclude that it belongs to the beginning of the fifth century; and that the pestilence to which it refers, is the same as that which entered Italy along with Alaric, in A. D. 409. Beyond this we can hardly venture to advance. Editions First published by P. Pithou in his "Veterum aliquot Galliae Theologorum Scripta" (4to. Paris, 1586) as, Severi Rhetoris et Poetae Christiani Carmen Bucolicum. The second edition is (Paris, 1590), named above. It will be found also in the Bibliotheca Patrum Max., fol. Lugd. 1677, vol. vi. p. 366; in the Bibliothieca Patrum of Galland, fol. Venet. 1788, vol. viii. p. 207, and in Wernsdorf's P. L. M., vol. ii. p. 217. It has been p