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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 9 9 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Cyrillus or St. Cyrillus (search)
Cyrillus or St. Cyrillus (*Ku/rillos), ST., was a native of ALEXANDRIA, and nephew of Theophilus, bishop of the same place. The year of his birth is not known. After having been a presbyter of the church at Alexandria, he succeeded to the episcopal chair on the death of Theophilus, A. D. 412. To this office he was no sooner elevated than he gave full scope to those dispositions and desires that guided him through an unquiet life. Unbounded ambition and vindictiveness, jealousy of opponents, illdirected cunning, apparent zeal for the truth, and an arrogant desire to lord it over the churches, constituted the character of this vehement patriarch. His restless and turbulent spirit, bent on self-aggrandisement, presents an unfavourable portrait to the impartial historian. Immediately after his elevation, he entered with vigour on the duties supposed to devolve on the prelate of so important a city. He banished from it the Jews, who are said to have been attempting violence towards the Ch
tice of his appointment in the earlier part of 412; and the same year, elated with pride, and instigated, as we gather from Orosius, by Sabinus, an intriguing and unquiet man, whom he had raised from some post in his household to be his son-in-law, he revolted against Honorius, and assumed the purple. His first step was to stop the corn ships, as in the revolt of Attalus; his second, to collect ships and troops for the invasion of Italy. An edict of Honorius, dated from Ravenna, Non. Jul., A. D. 412, denounces sentence of death against him and his followers, as public enemies, and enables us to fix the date of his revolt. Gothofredus would, indeed, correct the date of this edict to the next year, but we think without reason. The threatened invasion of Italy did not take place till the next year (A. D. 413). Heraclian had a great force with him, though the numbers are differently stated. The enterprise failed; but the particulars of the failure are variously stated. According to Orosiu
Hercu'lius (*(Erkou/lios), praefectus praetorio Illyrici, A. D. 408-412, is probably the Herculius to whom one of the letters of Chrysostom is addressed. It is in answer to a letter from Herculius to Chrysostom, and expresses Chrysostom's appreciation of the affection of Herculius for him, which was "known by all the city," i. e. of Constantinople. The letter was written during Chrysostom's exile, A. D. 404-407. (Chrysostom, Opera, vol. iii. p. 859, ed. Paris, 1834, &c.; Cod. Theod. 11. tit. 17.4; tit. 22.5; 12. tit. 1.172; 15. tit. 1.49.) [J.C.
the imperial title, but almost immediately again deprived him of it. He then marched to Rome, which he took and plundered. He died soon after; and his brother-in-law, Ataulphus, who succeeded him, retired with his army, after a time, into Gaul (A. D. 412), and Italy was once more left free from invaders. [ATAULPHUS.] While Honorius (A. D. 409) was hard pressed by the Visi-Goths and by the revolt of Alaric, Constantine the usurper, who had established himself in Gaul, proposed to come into Itahus made a treaty with Honorius. seized Sebastian, brother of Jovinus, whom Jovinus had proclanned emperor, and sent his head to Honorius; and having drawn Jovinus himself into Valentia (Valence), and obliged him to surrender, delivered him up (A. D. 412 or 413) to Dardanus, one of Honorius' officers, who, without waiting for the emperor's authority, put him to death. About the same time Sallustius, either an accomplice of Jovinus or a rebel on his own account, was put to death; and Heraclian,
e delegation. But their return was ill-timed and unfortunate: they were arrested on approaching Constantinople, and both delegates and exiles were confined at Athyra in Thrace; and then the four returning fugitives were banished to separate and distant places, Pailadius to the extremity of Upper Egypt, in the vicimty of the Blemmyes. (Dial. de Vita Chrysost. 100.4,19, pp. 30, &c., 192, &c.) Tillemont supposes that after the death of Theophilus of Alexandria, the great enemy of Chrysostom (A. D. 412), Palladius obtained some relaxation of his punishment, though he was not allowed to return to Helenopolis, or to resume his episcopal functions. He places in the interval between 412 and 420, when the Lausiac History was written, a residence of four years at Antinöe or Antinoopolis, in the Thebaid (100.81, vilas., 96, Bibl. Patr.), and of three years in the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem (100.63, Menrs., 103, Bibl. Patr.), as well as the visits which Palladius paid to many parts of the E
successor), from his being regarded as the genuine successor of Plato in doctrine, was one of the most celebrated teachers of the Neoplatonic school. (Marin. 100.10. In some MSS. he is styled *Dia/doxos *Platwniko/s.) He was of Lycian origin, the son of Patricius and Marcella, who belonged to the city of Xanthus, which Proclus himself regarded as his native place. According, however, to the distinct statement of Marinus (Vit. Procli, 100.6) he was born at Byzantium, on the 8th of February, A. D. 412, as is clear from the data furnished by his horoscope, which Marinus has preserved. The earlier period of his life was spent at Xanthus. When still very young, he was distinguished by his remarkable eagerness for study, to which Marinus believes him to have been urged by Athena herself, who appeared to him in a vision. Such watchful care, indeed, did the gods, according to that writer, take of Proclus, that he was preternaturally cured of a dangerous malady in his youth by Apollo, who appe
Epistolai/ a collection of 156 (not 155) Letters, which form by far the most interesting portion of his extant works. 7. *(Omili/a a short discourse on Psalm 75.8. 8. *(Omilia another short disconrse on the Eve of the Nativity of Christ. 9. *Kata/stasis r(hqei=ra e)pi\ th=| megi/sth| tw=n barba/rwn e)fo/dw| h(gemoneu/ontos *Gennadi/ou kai\ *Douko\s o)/ntos *)Innokenti/ou, an oration describing the calamities suffered by the Pentapolis from the great incursion of the barbarians in A. D. 412. 10. *Kata/stasis an oration in praise of Aysius, the prefect of Libya. 11. *Pro\s *Paio/nion u(pe\r tou= dw/rou lo/gos de dono Astrolabii ad Pueonium dissertatio. 12. *(/Umnoi ten Hymns; which appear to have been only a small portion of his poetical compositions. Three Epigrams ascribed to Synesius The Greek Anthology contains three epigrams ascribed to him, two of which consist each of a single hexameter verse (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 449; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p.
ts, the call of Theophilus to Constantinople by the empress Eudoxia, and his success in procuring the deposition and banishment of Chrysostom (A. D. 403), are related under CHRYSOSTOMUS [Vol. I. p. 704a.] During the tumult which followed the deposition of Chrysostom, Theophilus made his escape secretly from Constantinople, and returned to Alexandria, where, in the following year (A. D. 404) he issued a third paschal letter against the Origenists, and where he closed his turbulent career in A. D. 412. Works The works of Theophilus mentioned by the ancient writers are :-- Against the Origenists One against the Origenists, which is quoted by Theodoret (Dial. 2, p. 191), under the title of prosfwnhtiko\n pro\s tou\s fronou=ntas ta\ *)Wrige/nons, and which Gennadius (33) calls Adversus Origenem unum et grande volumen. Letter to Porphyry A Letter to Porphyry, bishop of Antioch, quoted in the Acta Concil. Ephes. pt. 1.100.4. The Three Paschal Letters The three Paschal Letters, or