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ocured for him the friendship of Augustin, whom he consulted with regard to enforcing the imperial laws against the Donatists, and to scruples which he entertained against continuing military pursuits, and (on the death of his wife) even against remaining in the world at all These scruples Augustin wisely allayed, only recommending to him resolutions, which he adopted, of confining himself to defensive warfare against the barbarians, and of leading a single life. (Augustin. Ep. 185, 189.) (A. D. 417, 418.) The abandonment of this last resolution, in his second marriage with a rich Arian lady of the name of Pelagia, seems to have exercised a pernicious influence over his general character. Although he so far maintained his own religious convictions as to insist on the previous conversion of his wife, yet he so far gave them up as to allow his child to receive Arian baptism; and as the first breach of even slight scruples may prepare a conscience naturally tender for the commission of
He'lio (*(Hli/wn), or HE'LION, magister officiorum, A. D. 414-417, 424-427, under Theodosius II. He is also called Patricius by Olympiodorus. (Comp. Cod. Theod. 6. tit. 27. s. 20. and 7. tit. 8. s. 14.) He was commissioned by Theodosius to invest with the robe of Caesar, at Thessalonica, A. D. 424, the boy Valentinian III., then in exile [GALLA, No. 3]; and after the overthrow and death of the usurper Joannes, he invested Valentinian at Rome, A. D. 425, with the robes and crown of Augustus. Helio had, before these transactions (A. D. 422), been engaged by Theodosius, by whom he was much esteemed, in negotiating a peace with the Persian king Varanes. (Cod. Theod. 13. tit. 3. s. 17; 6. tit. 27. ss. 17, 18, 19, 20; 7. tit. 8. s. 14; Gothofred. Prosop. Cod. Theod.; Olympiod apud Phot. Bibl. Cod. 80; Socrat. H. E. vii 20, 24; Theophan. Chronog. vol. i. p. 134, ed. Bonn; Tillemont, Hist. des Emp. vol. vi.) [J.C.
Innoce'ntius was bishop of Rome from the commencement of A. D. 402 until his death on the 12th of March, A. D. 417. He took an active part in the proceedings with regard to Chrysostom, whom he steadily supported while the patriarch was alive, and whose memory he vindicated from insult after death. Against the Novatians he displayed the most determined hostility, and one of his last acts was the condemnation of Pelagius, a sentence which, as appears evident from his epistles, ought to be regarded rather as a concession to the urgent representations of the Carthaginian Synod than as the result of full and heartfelt conviction. In consequence of the widely-diffused reputation enjoyed by Innocentius for learning and prudence, he was constantly consulted upon various points of doctrine and discipline by ecclesiastics at a distance; and the correspondence in which he thus became engaged with every part of the Christian world was conducted with so much skill, and the replies were couched so
lf ; he was again involved in squabbles with the supporters of orthodox views. He was charged with favouring Pelagius, who was then in Palestine, and who was accused of heresy in the councils of Jerusalem and Diospolis (A. D. 415), but was in the latter council acquitted of the charge, and restored to the communion of the church. The followers of Pelagius are represented as acting with great violence against Jerome. Jerome applied for the support and countenance of Pope Innocent I. (A. D. 402-417), who accordingly wrote to Joannes (Innocentii Epistol. 3, apud Labbe, Concilia, vol. ii. col. 1316; Mansi, Council. vol. iii. col. 1125), with whom Augnustin also remonstrated (Epistola, 252, ed. vett., 179, ed. Caillau, Paris, 1842) on the favour which he showed to Pelagius. Augustin's letter is, however, respectful and courteous, and he has elsewhere recognised Joannes as connected with himself in the unity of the faith (Contra Litt. Petilliani, 2.117). In the struggle of Joannes of Consta
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Lu'cius CHARINUS (search)
t it was much esteemed among the Manichaeans, though rejected by the great body of Christians. Date But it is not so clear whether the author lived before or after the time of Manes, who nourished in the latter half of the third century. Whether he wrote any other works is not clear. Apocryphal Writings Pope Innocent I., or the writer, whether Innocentius or not, of the Epistola III ad Exuperantium, ascribes to " one Leucius" some apocryphal writings extant in his time (Innocent died A. D. 417), under the names of Matthew, of James the Less, and of Peter and John: and in the prefatory letters to the apocryphal Evangelium de Nativitate Mariae (Fabric. Codex Apocryph. N. T. vol. i. p. 19), which pretend to be addressed to or written by Jerome, by whom the Evangelium itself (which was ascribed to the evangelist Matthew) was professedly translated from the Hebrew into Latin, it is stated that a work on the same subject, or rather the same work much interpolated, had been published b
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
heir clamour Orosius, upon his return from Palestine, composed this history to demonstrate that from the earliest epoch the world had been the scene of crimes not less revolting, and that men had groaned under calamities still more intolerable from war, pestilence, earthquakes, volcanoes, and the fury of the elements, while they could look forward to no happiness in a future state to console them for their miseries in the present. The annals, which extend from the Creation down to the year A. D. 417, are, with exception of the concluding portion, extracted from Justin, Eutropius and inferior second-hand authorities, whose statements are rashly admitted and unskilfully combined, without any attempt to investigate the basis upon which they rest, or to reconcile their contradictions and inconsistencies. Although such a compilation might be held in high esteem in the fifth century, and might command the applause of the ecclesiastical biographers from Gennadius downwards, and even of some
Bibl. Patr.), and of three years in the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem (100.63, Menrs., 103, Bibl. Patr.), as well as the visits which Palladius paid to many parts of the East. After a time he was restored to his bishopric of Helenopolis, from which he was translated to that of Aspona or Aspuna in Galatia (Socrat. 7.36): but the dates both of his restoration and his translation cannot be fixed: they probably took place after the healing of the schism occasioned by Chrysostom's affair, in A. D. 417, and probably after the composition of the Lausiac History, in A. D. 419 or 420. Palladius was probably dead before A. D. 431, when, in the third General (first Ephesian) Council, the see of Aspona was held by another person. He appears to have held the bishopric of Aspona only a short time, as he is currently designated from Helenopolis. Works The works ascribed to Palladius are the following: *(H pro\s *Lau/sana to\n praipo/stion i(stori/a perie/xousa bi/ous o(si/wn pate/rwn, Ad L
dained a presbyter. Works We possess the following works of this author: 1. Vita Ambrosii This, although commenced soon after A. D. 400, could not, from the historical allusions which it contains, have been finished until 412. Editions This piece will be found in almost all the editions of St. Ambrose. In many it is ascribed to Paulinus Nolanus, and in others to Paulinus Episcopus. 2. Libellus adversus Coelestium Zosimo Papae oblatus Drawn up and presented towards the close of A. D. 417. Editions It was printed from a Vatican MS. by Baronius, in his Annales, under A. D. 218, afterwards by Labbe, in his Collection of Councils, fol. Par. 1671, vol. ii. p. 1578, in the Benedictine edition of St. Augustine, vol. x. app. pt. 2, and by Constant, in his Epistolae Pontificum Romanorum, fol. Par. 1721, vol. i. p. 963. 3. De Benedictionibus Patriarcharum This is mentioned by Isidorus (De Viris Illustr. 100.41), but was not known to exist in an entire form until it was discov
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
north, and appears to have passed there the remainder of his life in peace. Work Itinerarium or De Reditu Rutilius described his return to Gaul in an elegiac poem, which bears the title of Itinerarium, or De Reditu, but which Wernsdorf thinks may have been entitled originally Rutilii de Reditu suo Itinerarium. Of this poem the first book, consisting of 644 lines, and a small portion of the second, have come down to us. It appears from internal evidence (1.133) that it was composed in A. D. 417, in the reign of Honorius. It is superior both in poetical colouring and purity of language to most of the productions of the age; and the passage in which he celebrates the praises of Rome is not unworthy of the pen of Claudian. Rutilius was a heathen, and attacks the Jews and monks with no small severity. Editions The editio princeps of the poem was printed at Bologna (Bononia) in 1520, 4to., with a dedication to Leo X. The work has since been frequently reprinted, and it appears in i
Zo'simus The short pontificate of this Roman bishop, which lasted from the 18th of March, A. D. 417, until his death on the 26th of December in the following year, was rendered more remarkable by the rash activity with which he plunged into delicate and irritating controversies than by any display of sound judgment or high principle. His attention was first occupied by the representations of Caelestius and Pelagius, who, having appealed to his predecessor Innocentius against what they termed the harsh and prejudiced sentence of the Carthaginian synod, now earnestly demanded a full investigation of the charges preferred against their orthodoxy. Zosimus not only pronounced the complete acquittal of the accused, but inveighed in the strongest terms against the conduct of the African clergy, and published a letter testifying his entire satisfaction with the explanations of Pelagius. But scarcely had he given expression to these feelings when a total change was wrought in his sentiments b