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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 14 14 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 439 AD or search for 439 AD in all documents.

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or Gonderic. in possession of the throne. His life divides itself into two parts : 1st, the conquest of Africa (A. D. 429-439); 2nd, the naval attacks on the empire itself (A. D. 439-477). 1. The Conquest of Africa (A. D. 429-439) In May A. D. 4A. D. 439-477). 1. The Conquest of Africa (A. D. 429-439) In May A. D. 429 (Idatii Chronic.), at the invitation of Bonifacius [BONIFACTIUS), Genseric crossed the straits of Gibraltar, at the head of 50,000 men, to take possession of the Roman provinces in the north of Africa. Joined by the Moors and the Donatists, of wh439) In May A. D. 429 (Idatii Chronic.), at the invitation of Bonifacius [BONIFACTIUS), Genseric crossed the straits of Gibraltar, at the head of 50,000 men, to take possession of the Roman provinces in the north of Africa. Joined by the Moors and the Donatists, of whom the fornier disgraced his march by their savage licentiousness, and the latter by their fanatical cruelties, lie ravaged the whole country with frightful severity. Of the two chief cities, Hippo fell before him. After the death of Augustin, and thronicles of Idatius, Prosper, Marcellinus; Victor Vitensis, ap. Ruinart.) 2. The Naval Attacks on the Empire itself (A. D. 439-477). The fleets of Genseric were the same terror to the coasts of the Mediterranean as those of Carthage had been six<
him, and he returned to the Thebaid. But the vindictiveness of his enemies was not satisfied : he was harshly hurried from one place of confinement to another, and at last died miserably from the effects of a fall. The story of his dying disease, in which his tongue was eaten by worms, which Evagrius had read in a certain work, was probably an invention springing from the mistaken notion that, in the retributive judgment of God, the member which had sinned should bear the he was living in A. D. 439, when Socrates wrote his history (Socrat. H. E. 7.34), and probably died before A. D. 450. His death did not abate the bitterness of his enemies; Evagrius records, with apparent satisfaction (H. E. 1.7, ad fin.), that he passed from the sufferings of this world to sharper and more enduring woe in the world to come. It is impossible either to deny or justify the violent treatment of Nestorius by the council of Ephesus. Neither can we, without compassion, read his touching appeal to his pe
law which had been passed in favour of their heretical opponents. He next took a prominent part in the councils held against Caelestius and Pelagius. In A. D. 430 he was driven from Calama by the Vandals, sought refuge at Hippo, and while that city was besieged, watched over the deathbed of his preceptor and friend. Prosper relates in his chronicle (A. D. 437) that Possidius, along with Novatus and Severianus, strenuously resisted the efforts of Genseric to propagate the doctrines of Arianism, and it is generally believed, that having been expelled from Africa, after the capture of Carthage (A. D. 439), he made his way to Italy, and there died. Works Two tracts by Possidius are still extant. 1. Vita Augustini 2. Indiculus Scriptorum Augustini. Editions These are attached to all the best editions of Augustine. The best edition of the Vita, in a separate form, is that of Salinas, 8vo. Rom. 1731, and Aug. Vindel. 1768; of the Indiculus, that published at Venice, 8vo. 1735. [W.R]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Saba or Saba Hamartolus or St. Saba (search)
Saba or Saba Hamartolus or St. Saba (*Sa/bas), or SABAS, a celebrated Greek ecclesiastic of the fifth century. He was a native of Mutalasca, a village in Cappadocia, where he was born, as his biographer, Cyril of Scythopolis, records, in the seventeenth consulship of the emperor Theodosius II., A. D. 439. His parents, named Joannes and Sophia, were Christians, and persons of rank. His father being engaged in military service at Alexandria, he was left at Mutalasca, under the care of Hermias, his maternal uncle; but the depraved character of his uncle's wife led to his removal and his being placed under the care of another uncle, Gregorius, his father's brother, who resided in the village of Scandus, in the same neighbourhood. His two uncles having a dispute about the guardianship of the boy, and the management of his absent father's property, he was placed in a monastery, called Flavianae, about twenty miles from Mutalasca, where he was trained up in the strictness of monastic obser
said that he went to them komidh= ne/os w)\n, " when quite young." Valesius suspects from the very high terms in which Socrates speaks of the rhetorician Troilus, and the acquaintance he shows with his affairs, that he studied under him also, which may be true. Beyond this, little sees to be known of the personal history of Socrates, except that he followed the profession of a pleader at Constantinople, and that he survived the seventeenth consulship of the emperor Theodosius the Younger, A. D. 439, to which period his Ecclesiastical History extends (H. E. 7.48). In fact, he probably survived that date several years, as he published a second edition of his history (H. E. 2.1), and had opportunity between the first and second editions to procure access to several additional documents, to weigh their testimony, and to re-write the first and second books. Photius, in his brief notice of Socrates and his history (Biblioth. Cod. 28), and Nicephorus Callisti (H. E. 1.1) in a still briefer
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
ted of by other writers, among whom he enumerates Clemens (apparently meaning the Pseudo-Clemens, author of the Recognitiones or the Clementina), Hegesippus, Africanus, and Eusebius, he contracted his plan so far as related to that period, and comprehended it in a separate work, a compendium in two books, which is now lost (H. E. lib. 1.1). His longer history is in nine books, but is imperfect; for though he proposed to bring it down to the seventeenth consulship of the younger Theodosius, A. D. 439, the year in which the history of Socrates ends (comp. Oratio ad Imp. Theodos. mentioned just below), the work, as now extant, comes down only a little later than the decease of the emperor Honorius, A. D. 423. Whether it was ever finished according to the author's design, or whether some portion of it has been lost, cannot now be ascertained. It breaks off at the end of a sentence, but in the middle of a chapter; for, while the title of the last chapter promises an account of the discover
he entrenchments of the besiegers. The siege was immediately raised; and Aetius, who arrived shortly afterwards, defeated Theodoric with great slaughter, and obliged him to retire into his own dominions. The Gothic king was now obliged to act on the defensive; and Aetius, on his return to Italy, left Litorius at the head of an army, chiefly consisting of Huns, to prosecute the war. Unable to resist the Romans in the field, Theodoric retired to Toulouse, where he was besieged by Litorius in A. D. 439. Despairing of success, Theodoric now endeavoured to obtain a peace by the mediation of his Christian bishops ; but Litorius, confident of success, and relying upon the predictions of the pagan augurs, that he should enter the Gothic capital in triumph, refused all the proposals which were repeatedly made him. The presumption of Litorius appears to have made him careless. The Goths availed themselves of a favourable opportunity, sallied out of their city, and, after a long and obstinate ba
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Theodo'sius II. or Theodo'sius the Younger or the Younger Theodo'sius (search)
(illustres et spectabiles) and an advocate were appointed to compile this code. Nothing was done till A. D. 435, when a new commission was appointed with the same power as the former commission, and the additional power of making changes in the constitutions. The new commissioners were sixteen, part of whom were of the rank of Illustres, and part of the rank of Spectabiles. On the fifteenth of February, A. D. 438, the Code was published, and it was declared to be from the first of January, A. D. 439, the only authority for the " Jus Principale," or that law which was formed by imperial constitutions, from the time of Constantine. In the same year the Code was published at Rome, as law for the Western Empire also, by Valentinian. The Code consists of sixteen books, which are divided into titles, with appropriate rubricae or headings; and the constitutions belonging to each title are arranged under it in chronological order. The first five books comprise the greater part of the consti
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
m, which had been already promised to the Eastern emperor by Placidia. He passed the winter with his wife at Thessalonica, and returned to Ravenna in the following year. By this marriage Valentinian had two daughters, Eudoxia and Placidia. In A. D. 439 the Gothic war still continued, and Litorius was besieging Theodoric in Toulouse, who asked for peace, which Litorius refused. A battle ensued in which Litorius was defeated, and the Goths carried him a prisoner into the city which he had hopearmy to dispute the further conquests of the Gothic king. The Western empire was gradually losing its extreme possessions. Merida in Spain was taken by Richila, king of the Suevi; and Genseric seized Carthage by surprise on the 9th of October A. D. 439. This was the more unexpected as a treaty had heen made with him in A. D. 435. The capture of Carthage, which had been in the hands of the Romans for near six hundred years, destroyed the Roman power in a large part of western Africa; but Valen
a decree of Pope Leo the Great, conjoined with that of Nice, so that after that period it did not form an independent diocese -- a fact which determines one limit with regard to the age of Valerianus. He is believed to be identical with the Valerianus to whom, in common with other bishops of southern Gaul, a letter was addressed by Leo touching the ordination of the bishop of Vaison (Episcopus Vasensis), and he is further believed to be the Valerianus who assisted at the councils of Ries (A. D. 439) and Arles (A. D. 455), but these and other suppositions rest upon no basis more stable than simple conjecture. Editions The Sermo de Bono Disciplinae was first published as the work of Valerianus by Melchior Goldastus, 8vo. Gen. 1601. Nineteen other discourses and an Epistle Ten years afterwards Sirmond discovered in a MS. belonging to the monastery of Corvey on the Weser nineteen discourses, together with an Epistola ad Monachos de Virtutibus et Ordine Doctrinae Apostolicae, purpor