ity to Valentine, who is probably identical with one Valentinian, who rebelled in A. D. 644, but was killed in a skirmish in the streets of Constantinople.
The reign of Constans II. is remarkable for the great losses which the empire sustained by the attacks of the Arabs and Longobards or Lombards. Egypt, and at last its capital, Alexandria, had been conquered by 'Amru, the general of the khalif 'Omar, towards the close of the reign of the emperor Heraclius, the grandfather of Constans. (A. D. 610 --641.) Anxious to regain possession of Alexandria, Constans fitted out an expedition against Egypt, and we are informed by the Chinese annalists, that he sent ambassadors to the emperor of China, Taisum, to excite him to a war against the Arabs, by whom the Chinese possessions in Turkistan were then infested. (Comp. De Guignes, Histoire générale des Huns, i. pp. 55, 56.)
This emperor reigned from A. D. 627 till 650, and as the Christian religion was preached in China during his reign by S
（*(Hra/kleios), a Roman emperor of the East, reigned from A. D. 610 to 641.
The character of this extraordinary man is a problem ; his reign, signalised by both splendid victories and awful defeats, is the last epoch of ancient Roman grandeur: he crushed Persia, the hereditary enemy of Rome, and he vainly opposed his swnotice, was born in Cappadocia, about A. D. 575. We know little of his earlier life, but we must suppose that he showed himself worthy of his ancestors, since in A. D. 610, his father destined hint to put an end to the insupportable tyranny of the emperor Phocas.
This prince, the assassin of the emperor Mauritius, whose throne he heutenant, Gregorius or Gregoras, with an army, with which they were to proceed through Egylpt, Syria, and Asia Minor. They started from Carthage in the autumn of A. D. 610.
There is a strange story that the one who should first arrive at Constantinople should be emperor.
But a fleet requires only twelve days or a fortnight to sail