rovided by their fathers, and lay up a store to ripen for their children.
Brickmaking in Greece was placed under legal supervisors.
The walls of the city of Athens, we learn from Pliny, were made of brick on the side towards Mt. Hymettus.
Many of their other public buildings were of brick, as were also those of the Romans.
An attempted enumeration would become tedious.
The palaces of Croesus, king of Lydia (548 B. C.), of Mausolus, of Halicarnassus (352 B. C.), the Bath of Titus (A. D. 70), the Pillar of Trajan (A. D. 98), and the Bath of Caracalla (A. D. 212), were of brick.
The latter yet bears witness to the quality.
Among many of the Asiatic nations the bricks are of excellent quality.
Those of China are faced with porcelain, and in Nepaul they are ornamented by the encaustic process and in relief.
The conquerors of Peru found the art of brickmaking in a flourishing condition in the Empire of the Incas, and both there and among the more northerly countries of Yucata
e his coins in all respects similar to theirs, . . . excepting what was necessitated by time and place. — Conde.
was the first who had the image of Christ struck on coins, A. D. 710.
The Pope's effigy first occurs on a coin in 1480.
The as libra, in the time of Servius Tullius (550 B. C.), weighed a pound, as its name indicates; by 190 B. C., it had fallen to half an ounce.
Silver was coined 269 B. C., when the denarius weighed 90 grains; in the time of Vespasian, A. D. 70, it had fallen to 53 grains.
The aureus was first issued about 204 B. C., and weighed 166 grains, but had fallen to 96 grains in the time of Heliogabalus, A. D. 218.
The silver coinage of Crotona, 600 B. C., was pure, as was also the gold coinage of Philip of Macedon, 350 B. C. Under Vespasian, A. D. 79, the silver money contained one fourth its weight of copper.
Under Antoninus Pius, A. D. 138, more than one third.
Under Commodus, A. D. 180, nearly one half.
Under Gordian, A. D. 236, m
d into the purpura and then into the buccinum. Sometimes a preliminary tint was given with coccus (kermes). The dye and dyed goods are celebrated in the Hebrew and other ancient scriptures.
This color seems, from its extreme beauty, permanence, and costliness, to have become regal, and the royal taste is for the same down to our day. The color of the velvet in the crown of the Queen of England is a shade of purple; the velvet coronation robes of George IV.
were of that color.
Pliny (A. D. 70) says that the robes of triumph in the time of Homer (900 B. C.) were colored.
Purple habits were given to Gideon by the Israelites from the spoils of the kings of Midian.
Achan secreted a Babylonish garment, and suffered for it. Plutarch says that when Alexander took Susa, the Greeks took from the royal treasury purple stuffs to the value of 5,000 talents (1 talent $860 × 5,000 = $4,300,000), which still retained their beauty, though they had lain there 190 years.
Prussian blue was disco
The mercury is vaporized, passes off, and is condensed into a metallic form.
It is purified by filtration and stored in iron bottles.
Quicksilver has been mined from time immemorial in Spain at Almaden in the province of La Mancha.
Dioscorides separated mercury from cinnabar.
（Humboldt.) Pliny states that 700,000 pounds (of cinnabar?) were received yearly from that source, and that the Greeks received it from thence 800 years previously to the date at which he wrote (A. D. 70). (See amalgam.) It is now mined extensively at Idria, in the Schiefergebirge, and is found in Hungary, many parts of Germany, in China, Japan, Mexico, Honduras, Columbia, Peru, and California.
The modes of obtaining mercury by the decomposition and distillation of cinnabar have been very imperfect and wasteful; and even at this day, with all the advantages of skill and capital, the actual product is but a small proportion of the amount obtained by a careful analysis.
It is understood that
r into a mold which forms a copy of the object in reverse.
While the art of modeling in clay was attributed by the ancients to Dibutades the Corinthian, about 985 B. C., that of taking plaster casts is attributed by Theophrastus and Pliny (A. D. 70) to Lysistratus of Sicyon, a brother of the celebrated sculptor Lysippus.
He first took plaster casts, and from these obtained a second cast in wax. The plastic nature of the latter enabled him to rectify imperfections and form an enduring, life-l In the time of Moeris, it is said that eight cubits were sufficient; fifteen or sixteen were required in the time of Herodotus, 456 B. C. At the present day eighteen cubits is considered the lowest inundation at Cairo.
In the time of Pliny (A. D. 70) twelve cubits were a famine, thirteen scarcity, fifteen safety, sixteen plenty.
At the present day eighteen cubits in the lowest, and at this hight the canals are cut, and distribution commences; nineteen cubits are tolerable, twenty adequate, tw
ent in baskets to the granary.
2. Cut off below the head by a toothed sickle, and the heads carried off in baskets.
3. Cut off at half the length of the straw.
In the first century of the Christian era we hear from Gaul.
Says Pliny (A. D. 70):—
The mode of getting in the harvest varies considerably.
In the vast domains of the provinces of Gaul, a large hollow frame, armed with teeth and supported on two wheels, is driven through the standing grain, the beasts being yoked behind s, and in places where there is no necessity for feeding with straw.
After the lapse of fourteen centuries this machine has been reinvented, and is now used as a header for gathering clover-seed.
See Figs. 1346, 2465.
Reaper in Gaul.
(A. D. 70).
The separation of the ears from the grain in the sheaf, mentioned above as being performed by paddle-forks, was probably done by drawing the bunches of grain over a paddle whose end was deeply notched and the teeth sharpened.
The motion woul