bichloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate) and acetate of lead.
Rub with a cloth, and they are ready for use.
It appears from Pliny, A. D. 79, that the ancients were acquainted with amalgams, in their uses for separating gold and silver from earthy particles, and in gilding.
Pliny says : Mercury is an
The devices for this purpose consist respectively of a slotted sleeve, a notched key, a nut on the screw-shank, gripping jaws, a spring catch.
Pliny (died A. D. 79) recommends for augerhandles the wood of the wild olive, box, oak, elm, and ash. He says nothing about the augers.
Augers are made byrengthened and preserved by metal (see skeins), and the axle-tree itself receives straps and bands, secured by clips and bolts, for the same purpose.
Pliny, A. D. 79, recommends ash, oak, and elm for the manufacture of axle-trees.
See carriage, chariot, wagon.
The arms of the compound truss-axle (Fig. 483) <
, or with butter for shortening, or with eggs and milk, and often soaked in milk and honey before eating.
Vinegar, to soak the bread, was a regular ration with the Roman soldiery.
It is much older than that, however: Boaz said unto Ruth, Eat of thy bread, and dip thy morsel in the vinegar.
After the conquest of Macedon, 148 B. C., Greek bakers came to Rome and monopolized the business.
Loaves of bread, or their pseudomorphs, are found in the excavations of Pompeii, partially buried A. D. 79.
Bread was made with yeast by the English bakers in 1634.
Was made by machinery in England in 1858.
Was artificially inflated with carbonic-acid gas, with which the water of mixing was impregnated, by Dr. Dauglish, in 1859.
Aerated bread was made in the United States prior to 1854.
A knife pivoted at one end to a post on a table, and used by a vertical motion to cut loaves into slices.
In the example the hinged cutter plays in a slotted arched frame; a
In this, the pattern was painted in wax upon the cloth, which was then dyed.
(See Pallampoor.) Of the mordant style we have an excellent account in Pliny (d. A. D. 79): —
Robes and white veils are painted in Egypt in a wonderful way; they are first imbrued, not with dyes, but with dye-absorbing drugs, by which, though they see Heliogabalus, A. D. 218.
The silver coinage of Crotona, 600 B. C., was pure, as was also the gold coinage of Philip of Macedon, 350 B. C. Under Vespasian, A. D. 79, the silver money contained one fourth its weight of copper.
Under Antoninus Pius, A. D. 138, more than one third.
Under Commodus, A. D. 180, nearly one half.
Unther Egyptians left their native country and gave the first taste of arts to ancient Attica.
Several compasses were discovered at Herculaneum (overwhelmed, A. D. 79), and among the number was a pair of reducing-compasses.
See Bowpen; dividers; also list under compass.
A form of joint usual in compasses i
n of Nero.
Some are found in the ruins of Pompeii, buried 79 B. C.
Pliny describes the mode of making glass, and states that Sidon was formerly famous for its glasshouses, and that its people first invented mirrors.
In this day, says he (A. D. 79), throughout the Spanish and Gallic provinces, glass is made of white sand and niter by a double fusion.
He also speaks of flexible glass, stating that he hardly believed the story, which was a wonderful thing after telling such a farrago of stuffacity, and a scale beam which is graduated to give the weight in pounds and fractions of a measured bushel.
A machine for cutting standing grain.
There are many varieties, and the idea is as old as the time of Pliny, A. D. 79.
In his time the plains of Gaul were reaped by a machine driven by one ox harnessed between shafts.
The head of the grain was cut from the straw and fell into a large box which formed a part of the machine.
See reaper; clover-seed harvester.
ty are now buried.
(See Wilkinson.) The amount of land inundated by the Nile is about 5,626 square miles (average). This does not include the river and lakes.
Harrows bore the same part in the operations of husbandry in the time of Pliny (A. D. 79) that they do now. After the seed is put in the ground, harrows with long teeth are drawn over it.
The common harrow of the Romans was a hurdle, but they also used harrows made of planks studded with iron spikes.
The harrow is represented in B. C. Homer represents Ulysses as finding Laertes digging, and preparing to plant a row of quick-sets.
The art of clipping trees, says Pliny, was invented by C. Martius, a friend of the late Emperor Augustus, within the last eighty years (A. D. 79). He had not seen the beautiful gardens of Egypt.
In some of the principal apple counties of England, the hedges are made of apple and pear trees trimmed to the proper proportions.
In Brecknockshire, hazel is much used; blackthorn and hawthorn
ntioned in the Odyssey was moved by pulling a latch-string which passed through the door and hung outside.
Denon has engraved an Egyptian lock which no doubt had a key.
The Roman keys were very various (see f g h i, Fig. 2742), some like the old Egyptian and others like the modern.
The ring, or bow, stem, and bit are all there.
Some have hollow barrels, like our trunk keys.
Thirty varieties are shown by Montfaucon.
The keys found at Herculaneum show that the art of lock-making (A. D. 79) was well understood.
4. (Joinery.) a. A piece of timber let transversely into the back of a board, which consists of several breadths, for the purpose of preventing warping.
b. The last board of a floor or platform which is driven into position and keys up the others.
c. A tenon piece, of the nature of a dowel entering coincident parts in matched boards, and holding them together, or in correspondence.
d. The roughing on the under side of a veneer, which is made by a toothing-pl
hinged together, the lower one is fixed, and the upper one has a lever and side-strips.
The mop is pressed between them and drains into a bucket.
A fine tapestry or Brussels carpet.
A species of Wilton carpet.
A substance applied to a fabric to give a fixity to the dye.
1. (Dyeing.) Mordants were known to the natives of India, and perhaps of Egypt, in the time of Pliny, who was suffocated by sulphurous fumes or carbonic acid in the year 79. Their fabrics are first imbued, not with dyes, but with dye-absorbing drugs, by which, though they seem to be unaltered, yet when immersed in a caldron of the boiling dye-liquor they are found to be painted.
Yet, as there is only one color in the caldron, it is marvelous to see many colors imparted to the robe, in consequence of the influence of the pigment.
Nor can the colors be washed out.
He farther remarks to the effect that a number of colors in the caldron would only give a neutral
tion shows a form with a front, back flues, damper, a rake-hole for the embers, and an ashpit beneath.
Loaves found in a Pompeian bakery indicate that the name of the meal, wheat, rye, beans, etc., was stamped on bread.
Among the recent discoveries in a baker's oven, so hermetically sealed, says Marc Monnier, that not a particle of volcanic ashes had entered, there were eighty-one loaves, whole, hard, and black, found just as they had been placed on the 23d of November, A. D. 79.
Enchanted with the discovery, Fiorelli himself climbed into the oven and took out the precious relies with his own hands.
Most of them weigh about a pound, are round, depressed in the center, and divided into eight lobes.
Loaves precisely like them are still made in Sicily.
2. The baker's oven.
a. Until lately, and even now in many places, this was but an extension of the one last described; the additional capacity enabling it to act upon a larger quantity, and the larger size requirin
and affords a very interesting record of the state of practical knowledge at that time.
He was suffocated by the mephitic vapors at the eruption of Vesuvius, A. D. 79, which he had imprudently approached too nearly, for the purpose of scientific investigation.
It may be remarked, that this eruption of Vesuvius, described withstrikes.
A tramway whose tracks are of stone.
The hard covering of the surface of a road or foot-way.
According to Pliny (A. D. 79), pavements are an invention of the Greeks.
As usual, he forgets Egypt and is oblivious of India and China.
Sosus of Pergamus (founded 283 B. C.) made ornamental we have in Rome ; and this although the Romans dug down the chalk-hill Leucorgeum, between Naples and Puteoli, to get an artificial whitening.
Pliny says (A. D. 79): Plows are of various kinds.
The colter is the iron part that cuts up the dense earth before it is broken into pieces, and traces beforehand by its incisions the
Green wood fills the intervals between the teeth of the saw with sawdust, rendering its edge uniform and inert; it is for this reason that the teeth are made to project right and left in turns, so that the sawdust is discharged. — Pliny, A. D. 79.
The saw-maker generally employs a small hammer a, the saw being laid nearly flat, with its teeth along the ridge of a rounded edged anvil or stake b b held in the tail vise; the angle is in great measure determined by the curve of the stake, whs.
In some, the blade is colored blue, to represent iron or steel; in others, it is colored to represent bronze, which was no doubt the metal more commonly used for this purpose; in fact, bronze was used even for surgical instruments down to A. D. 79, as is proved by the discovery of a complete set at Pompeii.
Fig. 5060 is copied from a painting in the Ancient Elethia, and indicates the shape and mode of using the sickle in Egypt.
The handle was stocked at right angles to the sweep of the b