mber of 200, above given, might be swelled to several thousand, by including those required for inspecting the various carbines and pistols made by different parties for the United States government; all which were made so that the parts of the same kind might be interchanged.
Defensive clothing or covering for the body in battle.
Scale and chain armor were common among the old Egyptians (time of Rameses III.) and Assyrians, also among the Persians and Romans.
Dr. Abbott's collection in New York contains the iron helmet and scale armor of Sheshonk, or Shishak, the king of Egypt who overthrew Rehoboam, seven years after the death of Solomon.
The scales are the shape of the Egyptian shield round end downward, and some of them are marked with the cartouche of the king.
The Sarmatians wore scale armor of pieces of horn or horse-hoofs fastened to a linen doublet.
Goliath was armed with a coat of mail (1 Samuel xvii). It is frequently spoken of by Homer.
e Middle Ages, and was in use as late as the sixteenth century, when attempts were made to improve it by attaching a pistol to the handle.
a, battle-axe from Dr. Abbott's collection of Egyptian antiquities in New York; made of bronze, firmly bound to its original handle by means of slender interlaced thongs of leather.
It was olt is one having a screw-thread on the whole or a considerable portion of its length.
Bolts of bronze were used in ancient Egypt, but had no thread.
One in Dr. Abbott's collection has the square head for turning.
There are many kinds.
1 is a screw-bolt having a square head a, a short round shank b, washer c, and nut d; w and the adze were the principal shaping-tools.
The parts of the chair were secured together by tenon and mortise, fastened by wooden pins.
See the chairs in Dr. Abbott's collection, New York Historical Society's Museum.
The same collection has drill-bows and cords from Sakkarah and elsewhere.
The modern b
eans of the mouth.
Job refers to sucking the poison of asps; from a wound, doubtless.
Machaon sucked forth the blood from the wounds of Menelaus.
Eleanor, the queen, drew the poison from the wounds of her husband, the English king.
Tubes were early substituted for the lips, to avoid contact of the purulent matter with the mouth.
Blood-letting is still performed by the Hindoos, Chinese, and Malays, by means of a copper cup and tube, the mouth being applied to the latter.
In the late Dr. Abbott's museum of Egyptian Antiquities, New York City, are three of the ancient cupping-horns, similar to those used through the East at the present time.
The operator exhausts the air through a small hole at the point of the horn, to which he applies his mouth, and then covers it with a piece of leather, which is attached to it for that purpose.
They were found in tombs at Sakkarah.
Cupping-instruments are described by Hippocrates 413 B. C., and by Celsus 20 B. C.
Hero of Alexandria sta
The natives of the South Seas in the regions visited by Magellan, Cook, La Perouse, Anson, and others, made fish-hooks of bone, carved or neatly framed together and bound with sinews.
Such are common in the museums, along with the bone knives and cutting instruments made of shark's teeth lashed to a back piece, the primitive saw. A mother-ofpearl hook with attached tuft of hair to act as bait is known as witte-wittee.
The old Egyptian fish-hooks were of bronze.
See one in Dr. Abbott's collection, New York.
Homer mentions the barbed hooks as used by Ulysses and his companions in Sicily: —
All fish and birds, and all that come to hand With barbed hooks.
Odyssey, XII. 322
Athenaeus states (A. D. 220) that the hooks were not forged in Sicily, but were brought by them in their vessel. — Athen.
Epit., B. I. 22.
Of the Grecian fish-hooks, some were bent around and others were straight, with a barb.
In the cut are shown a number of fish-hooks, of which a b ar
Egyptian monuments, even as early as Osirtasen, 1706 B. C. In the time of Thothmes III., the era of the exodus, they had various modes of applying; in leaf, inlaying, or by beating it into other metals.
Specimens may be seen in Dr. Abbott's collection, New York.
We read that the wood of the ark was overlaid with gold, 1490 B. C.
It was lavishly practiced in ancient Rome; parts of the Capitol were thus ornamented, a single ounce only making 450 leaves, each four inches squared colors, sticks of twisted colors.
Small glass bottles from the Phoenician tombs, beneath the level of the Greek necropolis, show a reddish color when transmitting sunshine.
It would be tedious to enumerate the articles of glass found by Dr. Abbott in the tombs of Egypt.
The myth related by Pliny and so widely copied in relation to the invention of glass-making by certain Phoenician mariners, has been exploded by researches in the land of the Nile.
A few pieces in the collection may be
a. Defensive armor for the head.
Casque, head-piece, morion, are other names for the same thing.
It was anciently formed of skins, leather, brass, iron, and still survives in the metallic and leather helmets of European armies.
Dr. Abbott's collection in New York has the helmet of Sheshonk or Shishak, with his cartouche upon it.
Herodotus states that the Carians were the inventors of three things, the use of which was borrowed from them by the Greeks; they were the first to fs competitors broke down at various points in the trial.
Stephenson was an excellent workman.
The very insincere book called the Life of Stephenson ignores most of these facts, and pettifogs the whole case; it is about as one-sided an affair as Abbott's Life of Saint Napoleon, but has done much less harm, as it is only ungenerous and unfair, and does not debauch the judgment of the rising generation.
The projection of a sculptured figure, half or more, from the plane surfa
be dipped from; in the other direction brings a solid portion of the disk to the aperture, and protects the ink from dust and evaporation.
The inkstands of the ancient Egyptians were of wood, porcelain, or other materials.
Specimens are in Dr. Abbott's collection.
They contain places for the red and black pigments, and also for the reed pens.
The inkstands of the Romans were round, square, or hexagonal; and single or double, the latter for red and black inks.
A number were found at Pom
The existence and uses of iron among the ancient Egyptians are pretty well proved by the paintings, in which the iron or steel knives and sickles are distinguished from the bronze by the color; one being blue, the other a reddish-brown.
In Dr. Abbott's collection, now in the possession of the New York Historical Society, are the following articles of iron, stated by the doctor to be of undoubted authenticity.
They were found at Thebes:—
Iron helmet, neck-guard, and breast-plate of scale
ul to use metal.
In the Berlin Museum are two flint knives (a, b) of ancient Egypt, which, no doubt, were used in their religious observances; for the embalming of bodies was of this character, and was under the control of the priests.
c is the knife as represented in the Egyptian hieroglyphics.
d shows an old Egyptian butcher with his dismembering-knife, and his steel stuck into his belt.
e f g are from Assyrian knives in the British Museum.
In the Egyptian museum of the late Dr. Abbott, New York City, are several of the Egyptian knives of Ethiopic stone.
The operation of circumcision is now performed in Barbary with an ordinary pair of scissors.
The knives of ancient Egypt were usually of bronze, though blades of iron and steel were not unknown.
Those of the latter metal have seldom, if ever, come down to our times, as they so readily rust and fall to pieces.
They are, however, clearly distinguished from the bronze by being colored blue in the paintings of Byban el
nt the access of air to the contents.
4. (Music.) A musical stringed instrument, played like a guitar, but having a pear-shaped form and a ribbed back.
It is derived from the lyre.
The old Egyptian lute is represented in many places in Egypt; one at Thebes has a long neck without frets, three strings, and a fiddle-shaped body.
A lute shown on the signet-ring of Shoofoo, the Suphis of the Greeks (2325 B. C.), has a fretted neck.
See the late Dr. Abbott's collection, New York.
In Egypt we find the originals of most of the types of musical instruments.
See harp; castanet; drum, etc.
The lute consists of four parts: the table; the body, which has nine or ten sides; the neck, which has as many stops or divisions; and the head or cross, in which the screws for tuning it are inserted.
The performer strikes the string with the fingers of the right hand, and regulates the sounds with those of the left.
Simply constructed, it is called t
from 5 to 14 inches in dimensions.
They are generally furnished with handles, carved into ornamental or symbolic forms; resembling a tress of hair, a hawk's head, a column, a lotus scepter, or the goddess Athor.
Several specimens may be seen in Abbott's collection in the possession of the New York Historical Society.
The mirror with a handle is emblematical of Venus, and is represented on the stones in the ruins of Al Hadhr on the Tigris, the Atra of Ammianus Marcellinus.
Silver mirrors wing them into rectangular prisms.
See glass mosaic.
The art of glass-making, instead of being comparatively modern in the time of Pliny, had long been practiced in Egypt.
The manner in which the mosaic glass was made is thus described by Dr. Abbott, referring to specimens in his collection now in the Museum of the Historical Society, New York City.
678. Three fragments of colored glass on a card.
No. 1 represents a star, No. 2 a lotus.
These pieces are particularly interesting a